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[(中英對照版)國貿條規2000]

INCOTERMS 2000

國貿條規 2000

Introduction

介紹

1. PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF INCOTERMS

1. 目的和範圍INCOTERMS

The purpose of Incoterms is to provide a set of international rules for the interpretation of the most commonly used trade terms in foreign trade. Thus, the uncertainties of different interpretations of such terms in different countries can be avoided or at least reduced to a considerable degree.

國貿條規(Incoterms) 的目的是要為解釋最多常用的對外貿易中貿易條件提供一套國際規則。因而, 於不同的國家該條件不同解釋的不確定性能被避免或至少被減少到一可觀的程度。

 

Frequently, parties to a contract are unaware of the different trading practices in their respective countries. This can give rise to misunderstandings, disputes and litigation with all the waste of time and money that this entails. In order to remedy these problems the International Chamber of Commerce first published in 1936 a set of international rules for the interpretation of trade terms. These rules were known as «Incoterms 1936». Amendments and additions were later made in 1953, 1967, 1976, 1980, 1990 and presently in 2000 in order to bring the rules in line with current international trade practices.

時常地, 一份合同各方是不知道在他們個別的國家不同的貿易實務。這可能提升誤解, 爭執及訴訟與該這般惹起所有時間和金錢浪費。為了補救這些問題國際商會於1936 年第一次出版一套為解釋貿易條件的國際規則。這些規則為所週知係«國貿條規1936 (Incoterms 1936)»。為了要帶來與當前國際貿易實務相等齊的規則後來於1953 , 1967, 1976 , 1980 , 1990 年及最近於2000 年被修改及增加。

 

It should be stressed that the scope of Incoterms is limited to matters relating to the rights and obligations of the parties to the contract of sale with respect to the delivery of goods sold (in the sense of «tangibles», not including «intangibles» such as computer software).

它應該被強調著國貿條規(Incoterms)的範圍僅限於銷售與個別已銷售貨物交付合同各方此相關權利和義務事項 («實體的(tangibles)»的見解中, 並不包括諸如電腦軟體的«虛體的(intangibles)»)

 

It appears that two particular misconceptions about Incoterms are very common. First, Incoterms are frequently misunderstood as applying to the contract of carriage rather than to the contract of sale. Second, they are sometimes wrongly assumed to provide for all the duties which parties may wish to include in a contract of sale.

它呈現著對於國貿條規二種個別的誤解是非常普遍。首先, 國貿條規時常地被誤會係適用於此運送合同優於此銷售合同。其次, 他們有時錯誤地被擔任以提供所有責任其該方得希望包含在一份銷售合同中。

 

As has always been underlined by ICC, Incoterms deal only with the relation between sellers and buyers under the contract of sale, and, moreover, only do so in some very distinct respects.

係總於ICC項下, 國貿條規僅處理與於銷售合同項下賣主和買家之間關係, , 此外, 僅於處理如此某些非常不同的細事。

 

While it is essential for exporters and importers to consider the very practical relationship between the various contracts needed to perform an international sales transaction - where not only the contract of sale is required, but also contracts of carriage, insurance and financing - Incoterms relate to only one of these contracts, namely the contract of sale.

當它是基本的為出口商及進口商需要執行一項國際銷售交易於多樣的合同之間考慮此非常實用關係 - 不僅銷售合同, 而且運送合同, 保險和財務也被要求 - 國貿條規關係到只這些合同的當中一個, 即銷售合同。

 

Nevertheless, the parties' agreement to use a particular Incoterm would necessarily have implications for the other contracts. To mention a few examples, a seller having agreed to a CFR - or CIF -contract cannot perform such a contract by any other mode of transport than carriage by sea, since under these terms he must present a bill of lading or other maritime document to the buyer which is simply not possible if other modes of transport are used. Furthermore, the document required under a documentary credit would necessarily depend upon the means of transport intended to be used.

然而, 各方的協議使用一個特定的國貿條規將必然地為其它合同有含意。提幾個例子, 賣主同意一份到指定目的港運費含內價(CFR) - 到指定目的港運費保費含內價(CIF) - 合同不能由海洋運輸以外之其他運輸模式執行這樣的一份合同, 因為於這些條件項下他必須提出提單或其它海洋單據給買家如果其它運輸模式被使用其是簡然不可能的。更甚者, 在跟單信用狀之下要求的單據將必然地取決於所欲使用的運輸工具。

 

Second, Incoterms deal with a number of identified obligations imposed on the parties - such as the seller's obligation to place the goods at the disposal of the buyer or hand them over for carriage or deliver them at destination - and with the distribution of risk between the parties in these cases.

其次, 國貿條規所處理的為一些已被辨認強加予各方的義務 - 譬如賣主的義務依買家處置放置貨物或經手待運送或在目的地交付他們 - 及與這些情況中在各方間風險的分配。

 

Further, they deal with the obligations to clear the goods for export and import, the packing of the goods, the buyer's obligation to take delivery as well as the obligation to provide proof that the respective obligations have been duly fulfilled. Although Incoterms are extremely important for the implementation of the contract of sale, a great number of problems which may occur in such a contract are not dealt with at all, like transfer of ownership and other property rights, breaches of contract and the consequences following from such breaches as well as exemptions from liability in certain situations. It should be stressed that Incoterms are not intended to replace such contract terms that are needed for a complete contract of sale either by the incorporation of standard terms or by individually negotiated terms.

進一步, 他們所處理的為清關貨物待出口和進口的義務, 此貨物的包裝, 此買家的接受交付的義務及提供證明著各自義務已完整地被完成履行義務。雖然國貿條規是極端重要為銷售合同的工具, 一大量的問題其也許發生在這樣一個合同中是一點也未被處理, 像所有權和其它財產權利轉讓, 在某些情況合同違約和該類違約之隨後後果及責任豁免。它應該被強調著國貿條規是不意欲替換諸類合同條件其為需要藉由含入此標準條件或藉由各別地已協商的條件為一份完整的銷售合同。

 

Generally, Incoterms do not deal with the consequences of breach of contract and any exemptions from liability owing to various impediments. These questions must be resolved by other stipulations in the contract of sale and the applicable law.

通常, 由於多樣的障礙國貿條規不處理合同違約的後果及任何責任豁免。這些問題必須藉由在銷售合同中其它規定及可適用的法律被解決。

 

Incoterms have always been primarily intended for use where goods are sold for delivery across national boundaries: hence, international commercial terms. However, Incoterms are in practice at times also incorporated into contracts for the sale of goods within purely domestic markets. Where Incoterms are so used, the A2 and B2 clauses and any other stipulation of other articles dealing with export and import do, of course, become redundant.

國貿條規主要意欲使用於被賣出的物品為橫跨國界交付: 因此, 國際商業條件。無論如何, 國貿條規是在實務中於單純的國內市場之內及時同樣被含入在貨物銷售合同中。那裡國貿條規被如此使用, A2 B2 條目及其他條款的規定所處理與出口和進口所為, 當然, 變得過多。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. WHY REVISIONS OF INCOTERMS?

2. 為什麼修正國貿條規?

 

The main reason for successive revisions of Incoterms has been the need to adapt them to contemporary commercial practice. Thus, in the 1980 revision the term Free Carrier (now FCA) was introduced in order to deal with the frequent case where the reception point in maritime trade was no longer the traditional FOB-point (passing of the ship's rail) but rather a point on land, prior to loading on board a vessel, where the goods were stowed into a container for subsequent transport by sea or by different means of transport in combination (so-called combined or multimodal transport).

連續修正國貿條規的主要原因是有此需要使它們適應當代商業實務。因此, 1980 年修正版條件中的到指定地方貨交運送人價(Free Carrier)(現在為FCA)被介紹為處理於通常的情況下當海洋貿易中可接受的觀點是不再為傳統到指定裝運港船上交貨價(FOB) - 觀點(跨越此船軌) 但更恰當為一項在陸地上觀點, 在裝載上一艘船之前, 那此貨物為後續之海洋運送或由不同的運送工具組合被裝儲入一個貨櫃 (因之被稱為合併或複合運送)

Further, in the 1990 revision of Incoterms, the clauses dealing with the seller's obligation to provide proof of delivery permitted a replacement of paper documentation by EDI-messages provided the parties had agreed to communicate electronically. Needless to say, efforts are constantly made to improve upon the at the seller's own premises (the «E»-term Ex works); followed by the drafting and presentation of Incoterms in order to facilitate their practical implementation.

進一步, 在國貿條規1990 年修正版中, 此條目處理賣主的義務為於提供交付證明時允許提供已同意電子通信各方藉由EDI訊息替換紙張單據。不用說, 努力是不斷地被做以改善當此項在賣主的自己的營業場所 («E» - 條件 到指定地點工廠交貨價(Ex works )); 緊接被起草和呈現的國貿條規為了使實務工具更為便利。

 

 

 

 

 

3. INCOTERMS 2000

3. 國貿條規2000

During the process of revision, which has taken about two years, ICC has done its best to invite views and responses to successive drafts from a wide ranging spectrum of world traders, represented as these various sectors are on the national committees through which ICC operates. Indeed, it has been gratifying to see that this revision process has attracted far more reaction from users around the world than any of the previous revisions of Incoterms. The result of this dialogue is Incoterms 2000, a version which when compared with Incoterms 1990 may appear to have effected few changes. It is clear, however, that Incoterms now enjoy world wide recognition and ICC has therefore decided to consolidate upon that recognition and avoid change for its own sake. On the other hand, serious efforts have been made to ensure that the wording used in Incoterms 2000 clearly and accurately reflects trade practice. Moreover, substantive changes have been made in two areas:

在修正的過程中, 其大約以二年時間,  國際商會(ICC)盡其力自一個普世客商寬廣視野引入看法和反應以連續起草, 經由國際商會(ICC)操作(這些客商)代表著這些不同的區域國家委員會。的確, 它是值得欣慰一看為此次修訂過程比任何先前國貿條規修訂已吸引了更多全世界使用者回應。這些對話的結果就是國貿條規2000 (Incoterms 2000), 當與國貿條規1990 (Incoterms 1990)比較版本可能出現有產生些許的變化。它是清楚的, 無論如何, 此國貿條規(Incoterms)現在獲得舉世認同並且國際商會(ICC)因此決定綜合這些認同及避免因他自己因素變動。另一方面, 嚴肅努力的做以確信著在國貿條規2000中使用的文詞被清楚地且準確地反應貿易實務。或多的, 真正的變化已產生在二個地方:

 

• the customs clearance and payment of duty obligations under FAS and DEQ; and

於到指定裝運港船邊交貨價(FAS) 到指定目的地港碼頭交貨價(DEQ)項下海關清關及關稅給付的義務; 並且

• the loading and unloading obligations under FCA.

於到指定地方貨交運送人價(FCA)項下裝載和卸載義務。

 

All changes, whether substantive or formal have been made on the basis of thorough research among users of Incoterms and particular regard has been given to queries received since 1990 by the Panel of Incoterms Experts, set up as an additional service to the users of Incoterms.

所有的改變, 不論實質或正式的被完成在自1990年起藉由國貿條規專家平檯經由在國貿條規使用者及個別案例之間問卷調查研究為基礎,對國貿條規的使用者係一項附加的服務,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. INCORPORATION OF INCOTERMS INTO THE CONTRACT OF SALE

4. 於此銷售合同中含入國貿條規

In view of the changes made to Incoterms from time to time, it is important to ensure that where the parties intend to incorporate Incoterms into their contract of sale, an express reference is always made to the current version of Incoterms. This may easily be overlooked when, for example, a reference has been made to an earlier version in standard contract forms or in order forms used by merchants. A failure to refer to the current version may then result in disputes as to whether the parties intended to incorporate that version or an earlier version as a part of their contract. Merchants wishing to use Incoterms 2000 should therefore clearly specify that their contract is governed by «Incoterms 2000».

縱觀國貿條規的時常變動, 它是重要確信著當各方意欲含入國貿條規於他們的銷售合同內, 一個明確附註是總被納入此最新版的國貿條規。這也許容易地被檢視當, 例如, 一個附註已被納入一份稍早版本於客商使用的標準合同型式中或於訂單型式中。未能附註此最新版本可能屆時導致爭執由於是否各方意欲含入該版本或一份稍早版本係屬他們合同的一部份。客商們希望使用國貿條規2000 (Incoterms 2000)時當因此清楚地標記著他們的合同是受轄於«國貿條規2000 (Incoterms 2000)»

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. THE STRUCTURE OF INCOTERMS

5. 此國貿條規架構

In 1990, for ease of understanding, the terms were grouped in four basically different categories; namely starting with the term whereby the seller only makes the goods available to the buyer at the seller's own premises (the «E»-term Ex works); followed by the second group whereby the seller is called upon to deliver the goods to a carrier appointed by the buyer (the «F»-terms FCA, FAS and FOB); continuing with the «C»-terms where the seller has to contract for carriage, but without assuming the risk of loss of or damage to the goods or additional costs due to events occurring after shipment and dispatch (CFR, CIF, CPT and CIP); and, finally, the «D»-terms whereby the seller has to bear all costs and risks needed to bring the goods to the place of destination (DAF, DES, DEQ, DDU and DDP). The following chart sets out this classification of the trade terms.

1990 , 為易於瞭解, 該等條規被編組在四個基本地不同的類別; 即開始於此條件當由此賣主僅讓此貨物在賣主的自己營業場所對此買主生效 («E» - 條件 指定地點工廠交貨價); 緊接由第二個組別當由此賣主被要求交付此貨物給買家指定的一運送人(«F» - 條件 到指定地方貨交運送人價(FCA), 到指定裝運港船邊交貨價(FAS) 到指定裝運港船上交貨價(FOB)); 續接為此«C» - 條件當此賣主必需簽約待運送, 但不承擔此貨物損失或損壞風險或額外費用由於事件發生於裝運及遞交之後 (到指定目的地港運費含內價(CFR) , 到指定目的地港運費保費含內價(CIF) , 到指定地方運費付訖價(CPT) 到指定目的地運費保費付訖價(CIP)); 並且, 最後, «D» - 條件當由此賣主必須負擔需要帶送此貨物到目的地地方所有費用和風險(到指定邊境交貨價(DAF) , 到指定目的地港船上交貨價(DES) , 到指定目的地港碼頭交貨價(DEQ) , 到指定目的地港碼頭稅前交貨價(DDU) 到指定目的地港碼頭稅後交貨價(DDP))。此下列圖表區分此貿易條規分類。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INCOTERMS 2000

國貿條規2000

FCA Free Carrier (... named place)

FCA 到指定地方貨交運送人價 (... 指定地方)

FAS Free Alongside Ship (...named port of shipment)

FAS到指定裝運港船邊交貨價 (... 指定裝運港)

FOB Free On Board (... named port of shipment)

FOB到指定裝運港船上交貨價 (...指定裝運港)

CFR Cost and Freight (... named port of destination)

CFR 到指定目的地港運費含內價(... 指定目的港)

CIF Cost, Insurance and Freight (... named port of destination)

CIF到指定目的地港運費保費含內價 (... 指定目的港)

CPT Carriage Paid To (... named place of destination)

CPT 到指定地方運費付訖價 (… 指定目的地)

CIP Carriage and Insurance Paid To (... named place of destination)

CIP到指定目的地運費保費付訖價(... 指定目的地)

DAF Delivered At Frontier (... named place)

DAF到指定邊境交貨價 (... 指定邊境)

DES Delivered Ex Ship (... named port of destination)

DES到指定目的地港船上交貨價 (... 指定目的港)

Ex.ship 到指定目的地港船上交貨價 (... 指定目的港)

DEQ Delivered Ex Quay (... named port of destination)

DEQ到指定目的地港碼頭交貨價 (... 指定目的港)

Ex.quay到指定目的地港碼頭交貨價 (... 指定目的港)

DDU Delivered Duty Unpaid (... named place of destination)

DDU到指定目的地稅前交貨價 (… 指定目的地)

DDP Delivered Duty Paid (... named place of destination)

DDP到指定目的地稅後交貨價 (… 指定目的地)

EXW  (Ex Works) 到指定地點工廠交貨價 (…. 指定地點)

 

Further, under all terms, as in Incoterms 1990, the respective obligations of the parties have been grouped under 10 headings where each heading on the seller's side «mirrors» the position of the buyer with respect to the same subject matter.

進一步, 於所有條件項下, 係於國貿條規1990 (Incoterms 1990), 各方個別義務被編組為10 個標題當在賣方的這邊每一個標題«對照»相對於買方也有相關的同樣要項。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. TERMINOLOGY

6. 術語

While drafting Incoterms 2000, considerable efforts have been made to achieve as much consistency as possible and desirable with respect to the various expressions used throughout the thirteen terms. Thus, the use of different expressions intended to convey the same meaning has been avoided. Also, whenever possible, the same expressions as appear in the 1980 UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) have been used.

當起草國貿條規2000 (Incoterms 2000), 已盡可觀的努力盡可能的堅實完成及經由此十三條規使用合意於相關的多樣表示。因此, 對不同的表示使用意欲傳達同樣意思已被避免。同時, 當如可能, 相同表示係如出現於此1980年聯合國國際貨物銷售合同會議 (CISG)已被使用。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"shipper"

"託運人"

In some cases it has been necessary to use the same term to express two different meanings simply because there has been no suitable alternative. Traders will be familiar with this difficulty both in the context of contracts of sale and also of contracts of carriage. Thus, for example, the term «shipper» signifies both the person handing over the goods for carriage and the person who makes the contract with the carrier: however, these two «shippers» may be different persons, for example under a FOB contract where the seller would hand over the goods for carriage and the buyer would make the contract with the carrier.

在某些情況中它曾是需要使用此同樣條件為簡單地表示二個不同意思因為它們沒有適當的替換。貿易商將通曉此二者關於銷售合同這點及亦於運送合同困難。因此, 例如, 此條件«shipper(託運人)» 象徵二者此人經手此貨物待運送及此人其與運送人簽合同: 無論如何, 這兩個«shipper(託運人)» 也許是不同的人, 例如於一份到指定裝運港船上交貨價(FOB)合同項下當此賣主當經手此貨物待運送並且此買家當與此運送人簽合同。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"delivery"

"交付"

It is particularly important to note that the term «delivery» is used in two different senses in Incoterms. First, it is used to determine when the seller has fulfilled his delivery obligation which is specified in the A4 clauses throughout Incoterms.

它是特別重要要注意著此條件«delivery(交付)» 二種不同的見解被使用在國貿條規中。首先, 它是被使用以決定當此買主已完成他的交付義務其是被標註於國貿條規各處A4條目中。

Second, the term «delivery» is also used in the context of the buyer's obligation to take or accept delivery of the goods, an obligation which appears in the B4 clauses throughout Incoterms. Used in this second context, the word "delivery" means first that the buyer "accepts" the very nature of the "C"-terms, namely that the seller fulfils his obligations upon the shipment of the goods and, second that the buyer is obliged to receive the goods. 其次, 此條件«delivery(交付)»也是同樣被使用在此買主的義務這點以接受或承受交付此貨物, 一項義務其出現在國貿條規各處B4條目中。使用在這第二點, 此詞語"交付(delivery )" 首先意味著此買家"承受(accepts )"此同一"C"的本質 - 條件, 即該當貨物裝運時此買主履行他的義務並且, 其次該此買家有義務接收此貨物。

 

This latter obligation is important so as to avoid unnecessary charges for storage of the goods until they have been collected by the buyer. Thus, for example under CFR and CIF contracts, the buyer is bound to accept delivery of the goods and to receive them from the carrier and if the buyer fails to do so, he may become liable to pay damages to the seller who has made the contract of carriage with the carrier or, alternatively, the buyer might have to pay demurrage charges resting upon the goods in order to obtain the carrier's release of the goods to him.

這後者義務是重要的為了避免為儲存此貨物直到他們已被買家完成收取止不必要的支出。因此, 例如於到指定目的地港運費含內價(CFR) 到指定目的地港運費保費含內價(CIF) 合同項下, 此買家被拘束要承受此貨物交付及要收取它們自運送人及如果此買家未能照做, 他可能變成有義務支付損失給此賣方其已與運送人簽運送合同或, 二者選一, 此買家可能必須支付貨物停頓滯留費用為得此運送人的放行此貨物給他。

When it is said in this context that the buyer must "accept delivery", this does not mean that the buyer has accepted the goods as conforming with the contract of sale, but only that he has accepted that the seller has performed his obligation to hand the goods over for carriage in accordance with the contract of carriage which he has to make under the A3 a) clauses of the "C"-terms.

當它是說在該此買家這點必須"承受交付(accept delivery )", 這不意味著此買家已承受此貨物係與銷售合同一致, 但僅為他已承受著此賣主依據於此"C"- 條件A3 a)條目項下的運送合同他所應作為已履行他的義務經手此貨物待運送。

So, if the buyer upon receipt of the goods at destination were to find that the goods did not conform to the stipulations in the contract of sale, he would be able to use any remedies which the contract of sale and the applicable law gave him against the seller, matters which, as has already been mentioned, lie entirely outside the scope of Incoterms.

如此, 如果當此買家於目的地收到貨物發現該此貨物並未和一致於此銷售合同中規定, 他當能使用任何其此銷售合同和其可適用的法律給他對抗此賣主補救方法, 事情其, 係如已經被提及的, 欺騙完全地逾越國貿條規的範圍。

Where appropriate, Incoterms 2000, have used the expression «placing the goods at the disposal of» the buyer when the goods are made available to the buyer at a particular place. This expression is intended to bear the same meaning as that of the phrase "handing over the goods" used in the 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods.

當適當的, 國貿條規2000 (Incoterms 2000), 已使用此表示詞 «依此買主(the buyer)處置放置此貨物(placing the goods at the disposal of)»使當此貨物在一特定地方對買主生效。這個表示詞意欲證實此同樣意義係如該此片語 "經手此貨物(handing over the goods) "1980年聯合國國際貨物銷售合同會議 (CISG)被使用

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"usual"

"通常"

 

The word "usual" appears in several terms, for example in EXW with respect to the time of delivery (A4) and in the "C"-terms with respect to the documents which the seller is obliged to provide and the contract of carriage which the seller must procure (A8, A3). It can, of course, be difficult to tell precisely what the word "usual" means, however, in many cases, it is possible to identify what persons in the trade usually do and this practice will then be the guiding light. In this sense, the word "usual" is rather more helpful than the word "reasonable", which requires an assessment not against the world of practice but against the more difficult principle of good faith and fair dealing. In some circumstances it may well be necessary to decide what is "reasonable". However, for the reasons given, in Incoterms the word "usual" has been generally preferred to the word "reasonable".

字詞 "通常(usual)" 出現在很多條件中, 例如在 到指定地點工廠交貨價(EXW) 相關(A4)的交付時間 在此"C" - 條件中相關其此賣主是義務以提供單據 (A8) 此其此賣主必需取得運送合同 (A3)。它能, 當然, 是很難精確地告知此字詞 "通常(usual)" 的意思, 然而, 在許多情況中, 它是可能辨認在貿易中什麼人時常地要做 並且這個實務屆時將導引更為透澈。於此觀點中, 此字詞 "通常(usual)" 是比此字詞 "合理的(reasonable)"更為有用, 其要求的一個評估並非是對付實務世界而是對付更多良好信譽及公平交易困難原則。在某些環境中它得更需要決定什麼是 "合理的(reasonable)" 無論如何, 若要給個理由, 在國貿條規中此字詞 "通常(usual)" 已經更通常地優於字詞 "合理的(reasonable)"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"charges"

"費用"

With respect to the obligation to clear the goods for import it is important to determine what is meant by «charges» which must be paid upon import of the goods. In Incoterms 1990 the expression «official charges payable upon exportation and importation of the goods» was used in DDP A6. In Incoterms 2000 DDP A6 the word «official» has been deleted, the reason being that this word gave rise to some uncertainty when determining whether the charge was «official» or not. No change of substantive meaning was intended through this deletion. The «charges» which must be paid only concern such charges as are a necessary consequence of the import as such and which thus have to be paid according to the applicable import regulations. Any additional charges levied by private parties in connection with the import are not to be included in these charges, such as charges for storage unrelated to the clearance obligation. However, the performance of that obligation may well result in some costs to customs brokers or freight forwarders if the party bearing the obligation does not do the work himself.

相關於貨物清關待進口的義務當進口貨物時它是重要的以決定什麼意思由 «charges(費用)»其必需被支付。 在國貿條規1990 (Incoterms 1990)中此表示詞«當進口和出口貨物時付給官方的費用(official charges payable upon exportation and importation of the goods)» 被使用在 到指定目的地稅後交貨價(DDP) A6中。 在國貿條規2000 (Incoterms 2000) 到指定目的地稅後交貨價(DDP) A6中此字詞 «官方official » 已被刪除, 此原因是該此字詞提升了某些不確定性當要決定這費用是否為 «官方official » 經由此項刪除並不改變實際的意義。 «費用(charges)» 必須僅被支付當該費用係是該等進口結果所必需的並且它因此根據可適用的進口規章必需被支付。任何附加費和進口相關由私人單位徵收的是不被包含於這些費用中, 諸如倉儲費用無關於清關義務。無論如何, 該義務的履行得更會對報關行或攬貨業產生某些費用如果該負義務方他自己本身並不處理此項事務。

 

 

 

 

 

 

"ports", "places", "points" and "premises"

"港口", "地方", "地點" "營業場所"

 

So far as concerns the place at which the goods are to be delivered, different expressions are used in Incoterms. In the terms intended to be used exclusively for carriage of goods by sea -such as FAS, FOB, CFR, CIF, DES and DEQ - the expressions «port of shipment» and «port of destination» have been used. In all other cases the word «place» has been used. In some cases, it has been deemed necessary also to indicate a «point» within the port or place as it may be important for the seller to know not only that the goods should be delivered in a particular area like a city but also where within that area the goods should be placed at the disposal of the buyer. Contracts of sale would frequently lack information in this respect and Incoterms therefore stipulate that if no specific point has been agreed within the named place, and if there are several points available, the seller may select the point which best suits his purpose (as an example see FCA A4). Where the delivery point is the seller's

至於有關貨物其將被交付的地方, 在國貿條規中不同的表示詞被使用。在條件意欲完全使用海洋運輸貨物 諸如 到指定裝運港船邊交貨價(FAS), 到指定裝運港船上交貨價(FOB)、到指定目的地港運費含內價(CFR) 、到指定目的地港運費保費含內價(CIF) 、到指定目的地港船上交貨價(DES) 和到指定目的地港碼頭交貨價(DEQ) – 此表示詞«裝運港(port of shipment) » «目的地港(port of destination)»被使用了。在所有其它的情況中此字詞«地方(place)»已被使用。在某些情況, 它並且被視為必要同時標明於港口或地方中的一個«地點(point)»如它可能重要給賣主週知不僅為此貨物當被交付在一個特別區域像一個城市而且那於該區域中此貨物當依買主處置被放置, 銷售合同通常缺少此相關訊息國貿條規因此規定著於指名的地方中如無特定地點被同意, 而且如果那兒有許多地點可適用, 此賣主得選擇那最合適他目的的地點 (範例參見FCA A4) 。那這交付地點是此賣主的(選擇)

 

 

 

 

 

 

"place" the expression «the seller's premises» (FCA A4) has been used.

"地方" 此表示詞«此賣主的營業場所» (FCA A4)已被使用。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"ship" and "vessel"

"船舶" "船艇"

 

In the terms intended to be used for carriage of goods by sea, the expressions «ship» and «vessel» are used as synonyms. Needless to say, the term «ship» would have to be used when it is an ingredient in the trade term itself such as in «free alongside ship» (FAS) and «delivery ex ship» (DES). Also, in view of the traditional use of the expression «passed the ship's rail» in FOB, the word «ship» has had to be used in that connection.

在條件中意欲被使用以海洋運送貨物, 此表示詞«船舶(ship)» «船艇(vessel) » 被使用作為同義詞。不用說, 此條件«船舶»當於貿易條件中它本身是一要素將必被使用諸如在«到指定裝運港船邊交貨價» (FAS) «到指定目的地港船上交貨價» (DES)中。並且, 縱觀傳統用在到指定裝運港船上交貨價(FOB)表示詞«通過船軌(passed the ship’s rail)», 此字詞«船舶(ship)»當必須被使用在該連結處。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"checking" and "inspection"

"檢查" "檢查"

 

In the A9 and B9 clauses of Incoterms the headings «checking -packaging and marking» and «inspection of the goods» respectively have been used. Although the words «checking» and «inspection» are synonyms, it has been deemed appropriate to use the former word with respect to the seller's delivery obligation under A4 and to reserve the latter for the particular case when a «pre-shipment inspection» is performed, since such inspection normally is only required when the buyer or the authorities of the export or import country want to ensure that the goods conform with contractual or official stipulations before they are shipped.

在國貿條規(Incoterms) A9 B9 條目中此標題«檢查 - 包裝和標記 (checking -packaging and marking )» «貨物檢查 (inspection of the goods )»各自地被使用。雖然字詞«檢查(checking)» «檢查(inspection)» 是同義詞, A4項下它被視為適當使用前一個字詞相關於賣主的交付義務 當一項«裝船前檢查 (pre-shipment inspection) »被執行時以保留後者為特殊案件, 因為這樣的檢查通常只當買家或出口或進口國家當局想要於它們裝運前確認該貨物和合同或官方規定一致。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7. THE SELLER'S DELIVERY OBLIGATIONS

7. 此賣主的交付義務

 

Incoterms focus on the seller's delivery obligation. The precise distribution of functions and costs in connection with the seller's delivery of the goods would normally not cause problems where the parties have a continuing commercial relationship. They would then establish a practice between themselves («course of dealing») which they would follow in subsequent dealings in the same manner as they have done earlier. However, if a new commercial relationship is established or if a contract is made through the medium of brokers - as is common in the sale of commodities -, one would have to apply the stipulations of the contract of sale and. whenever Incoterms 2000 have been incorporated into that contract, apply the division of functions, costs and risks following therefrom.

國貿條規(Incoterms)焦注在賣主的交付義務。此精確功能區分及在連結賣主的貨物交付成本於各方有一存續商業關係將通常不會造成困擾。他們將屆時於他們(«交易進行(course of dealing) »)之間建立一個實務哪些他們會以同樣先前他們已做過的方式引例於隨後交易。無論如何, 如果一個新商業關係被建立或如果一份合同經由經紀媒介被處理 係是一如平常在商品銷售 –, 一方當必需合適於銷售合同規定及. 每當國貿條規2000 (Incoterms 2000)被含入該合同中, 適用此功能區分, 費用和風險隨後自此開始。

It would, of course, have been desirable if Incoterms could specify in as detailed a manner as possible the duties of the parties in connection with the delivery of the goods. Compared with Incoterms 1990, further efforts have been made in this respect in some specified instances (see for example FCA A4). But it has not been possible to avoid reference to customs of the trade in FAS and FOB A4 («in the manner customary at the port»), the reason being that particularly in commodity trade the exact manner in which the goods are delivered for carriage in FAS and FOB contracts vary in the different sea ports.

它將, 當然, 會是滿意的如果國貿條規(Incoterms)當儘可能指定為一定型細節連結貨物交付的各方責任。比較國貿條規1990 (Incoterms 1990), 就某些特別的事例(參見範例到指定地方貨交運送人價A4條目(FCA A4))而論更多的成效已被展現。但在到指定裝運港船邊交貨價(FAS)及到指定裝運港船上交貨價(FOB) A4(«在慣例的港口(in the manner customary at the port) »)它已是不可能避免參考貿易慣例, 原因是那在特殊商品貿易中此正確的方式為在到指定裝運港船邊交貨價(FAS) 到指定裝運港船上交貨價(FOB)合同中此貨物是改變在不同的海港交付待運, ,

 

8. PASSING OF RISKS AND COSTS RELATING TO THE GOODS

8.相關此貨物通過的風險和費用

 

The risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as the obligation to bear the costs relating to the goods, passes from the seller to the buyer when the seller has fulfilled his obligation to deliver the goods. Since the buyer should not be given the possibility to delay the passing of the risk and costs, all terms stipulate that the passing of risk and costs may occur even before delivery, if the buyer does not take delivery as agreed or fails to give such instructions (with respect to time for shipment and/or place for delivery) as the seller may require in order to fulfil his obligation to deliver the goods. It is a requirement for such premature passing of risk and costs that the goods have been identified as intended for the buyer or, as is stipulated in the terms, set aside for him (appropriation).

對貨物的損失或損壞風險, 及負擔相關貨物費用義務, 從賣主通過到買家當此賣主已履行了他的交付貨物義務。儘管買家不應當給予延遲通過的風險和費用可能性, 所有條件規定著通過的風險和費用即使也許發生在交付之前, 如果買家不依約定接受交付或未能給予該等指示(相關於裝運時間 /或交付地方)係此賣家得要求以為履行交付貨物義務。它是一項要求為該提早通過的風險和費用當此貨物已被辨認為預交給買家或, 係被規定於條件中 , 為他儲運(撥歸用途)

This requirement is particularly important under EXW, since under all other terms the goods would normally have been identified as intended for the buyer when measures have been taken for their shipment or dispatch («F» - and «C»-terms) or their delivery at destination («D»-terms). In exceptional cases, however, the goods may have been sent from the seller in bulk without identification of the quantity for each buyer and, if so, passing of risk and cost does not occur before the goods have been appropriated as aforesaid (cf. also article 69.3 of the 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods).

在到指定地點工廠交貨價(EXW)項下這個要求是特別地重要, 因為根據所有其它條件貨物將通常已完成辨認係預交給買家當已安排裝運或遞交措施 («F » - « C » - 條件) 或他們在目的地交付 («D »條件) 在例外情況, 無論如何, 此貨物品或許從賣主處以散裝送出未辨認出每一買家數量且, 如果那樣, 通過風險和費用不會發生在貨物被如前所述做合適安排(要項(cf). 1980年聯合國國際間銷售合同會議 (CISG)69.3條款)

 

 

9. THE TERMS

9. 此期限

 

9.1 The"E"- term is the term in which the seller's obligation is at its minimum:

9.1 "E" (The"E") – 條件就是此條件其賣主的義務是在它方最小的:

the seller has to do no more than place the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the agreed place - usually at the seller's own premises. On the other hand, as a matter of practical reality, the seller would frequently assist the buyer in loading the goods on the latter's collecting vehicle. Although EXW would better reflect this if the seller's obligations were to be extended so as to include loading, it was thought desirable to retain the traditional principle of the seller's minimum obligation under EXW so that it could be used for cases where the seller does not wish to assume any obligation whatsoever with respect to the loading of the goods. If the buyer wants the seller to do more, this should be made clear in the contract of sale.

賣主所須做的無越於放置貨物在買家處置同意的地方 - 通常在賣主自己的營業場所。在另一方面, 於實務的真實面, 賣主通常會協助買家裝載貨物於隨後的收集車輛上。雖然到指定地點工廠交貨價(EXW)更會反應出此項如果賣主的義務被延伸以便包括裝載, 在到指定地點工廠交貨價(EXW)項下它是欣於被認為保留賣主的最小義務的傳統原則如此則它可使用於情況當賣主不希望承擔各種相關裝載貨物的任何義務案件。如果買家要賣主做的更多, 這應該被清楚列在銷售合同中。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9.2 The"F"- terms require the seller to deliver the goods for carriage as instructed by the buyer. The point at which the parties intend delivery to occur in the FCA term has caused difficulty because of the wide variety of circumstances which may surround contracts covered by this term. Thus, the goods may be loaded on a collecting vehicle sent by the buyer to pick them up at the seller's premises; alternatively, the goods may need to be unloaded from a vehicle sent by the seller to deliver the goods at a terminal named by the buyer. Incoterms 2000 take account of these alternatives by stipulating that, when the place named in the contract as the place of delivery is the seller's premises, delivery is complete when the goods are loaded on the buyer's collecting vehicle and, in other cases, delivery is complete when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer not unloaded from the seller's vehicle. The variations mentioned for different modes of transport in FCA A4 of Incoterms 1990 are not repeated in Incoterms 2000.

9.2"F" (The"F") – 條件要求賣主依照由買家指示交付貨物待運。其中要項為發生於到指定地方貨交運送人價(FCA)條件中當一方意欲交付造成困難因為此寬廣多變的環境其得因由這種條件圍繞合同。因而, 在賣主的營業場所貨物得被裝載在一輛由買家提供提領它們的收集車上; 換言之, 交付貨物在買家指名的一處貨櫃場貨物得需自一輛由賣主差送車輛被卸載。國貿條規2000 (Incoterms 2000)考慮到這種二者取其一(情況)並規範該(情況), 當於合同中指名地方係為交付地方是此賣主營業場所, 交付是完成的當此貨物被裝載在買家的收集車輛上並且, 在其它情況中, 交付是完成的當此貨物由買主所配置被放置無需自賣家的車輛卸載。此改變提述在國貿條規1990 (Incoterms 1990)的到指定地方貨交運送人價(FCA) A4中不同運送型式於國貿條規2000 (Incoterms 2000)中不被再重覆。

The delivery point under FOB, which is the same under CFR and CIF, has been left unchanged in Incoterms 2000 in spite of a considerable debate. Although the notion under FOB to deliver the goods «across the ship's rail» nowadays may seem inappropriate in many cases, it is nevertheless understood by merchants and applied in a manner which takes account of the goods and the available loading facilities. It was felt that a change of the FOB-point would create unnecessary confusion, particularly with respect to sale of commodities carried by sea typically under charter parties.

在到指定裝運港船上交貨價(FOB)項下的交付地點, 同樣的於在到指定目的地港運費含內價(CFR) 及到指定目的地港運費保費含內價(CIF)項下, 縱使經多次的辯論在國貿條規2000 (Incoterms 2000)中仍留下未做改變。雖然在到指定裝運港船上交貨價(FOB)項下的交付貨物概念«橫跨船弦(across the ship's rail)» 現今在許多情況中也許似乎不適當, 它是依然被由客商瞭解及適用一種方式其考慮到貨物及有效的裝載便利。 它認為著到指定裝運港船上交貨價(FOB) – 地點將會造成不必要的混淆, 特別於典型的海洋租船項下有關貨物的銷售以海洋運送。

Unfortunately, the word «FOB» is used by some merchants merely to indicate any point of delivery-such as «FOB factory», «FOB plant», «FOB Ex seller's works» or other inland points -thereby neglecting what the abbreviation means: Free On Board. It remains the case that such use of «FOB» tends to create confusion and should be avoided.

不幸地, 此字詞 «到指定裝運港船上交貨價(FOB)»被由某些客商使用僅標明任何交付地點 - 諸如«到指定工廠交貨價(FOB factory)», «到指定廠區交貨價(FOB plant)», «到離開指定賣主廠房交貨價(FOB Ex seller's works)»或其它內陸地點 -  因而忽略此簡意為何: 到指定裝運港船上交貨價(Free On Board)它仍然有此情況為該類使用«到指定裝運港船上交貨價(FOB)»傾向製造混淆及當要被避免。

There is an important change of FAS relating to the obligation to clear the goods for export, since it appears to be the most common practice to put this duty on the seller rather than on the buyer. In order to ensure that this change is duly noted it has been marked with capital letters in the preamble of FAS.

在到指定裝運港船邊交貨價(FAS) 有關貨物清關待出口義務這兒是一項重要的改變, 因為它看起來是最普遍做法為加此責任在賣主上大於在此買家上。為了確信此改變被完全的注意它被用大寫字母標記在到指定裝運港船邊交貨價(FAS) 序文中。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9.3 The «C»-terms require the seller to contract for carriage on usual terms at his own expense. Therefore, a point up to which he would have to pay transport costs must necessarily be indicated after the respective «C»-term. Under the CIF and CIP terms the seller also has to take out insurance and bear the insurance cost. Since the point for the division of costs is fixed at a point in the country of destination, the «C»-terms are frequently mistakenly believed to be arrival contracts, in which the seller would bear all risks and costs until the goods have actually arrived at the agreed point. However, it must be stressed that the «C»-terms are of the same nature as the «F»-terms in that the seller fulfils the contract in the country of shipment or dispatch. Thus, the contracts of sale under the «C»-terms, like the contracts under the «F»-terms, fall within the category of shipment contracts.

9.3 « C »條件要求賣主需以自費一般條件簽約待運送。所以, 一個地點決定到他當必需支付運送費用絕對需要被標明於隨後相關的« C » - 條件。於到指定目的地港運費保費含內價(CIF) 到指定目的地運費保費付訖價(CIP) 條件此賣主必須履行保險和負擔保險費用。僅管為區分費用此地點是固定在目的地國家中一處地點,  « C » - 條件是時常錯誤地被相信為是運達合同, 在其中此賣主負擔所有風險和費用直到貨物已實際上到達了同意的地點。無任如何, 它必須被強調著此« C » - 條件是同本質係如此« - 條件在其中此賣主履行此合同在裝運或遞交國家。因而, 此銷售合同在« C » - 條件項, 就像此合同在« F » - 條件項下, 隸屬於裝運合同類別。

 

It is in the nature of shipment contracts that, while the seller is bound to pay the normal transport cost for the carriage of the goods by a usual route and in a customary manner to the agreed place, the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as additional costs resulting from events occurring after the goods having been appropriately delivered for carriage, fall upon the buyer. Hence, the «C»-terms are distinguishable from all other terms in that they contain two «critical» points, one indicating the point to which the seller is bound to arrange and bear the costs of a contract of carriage and another one for the allocation of risk. For this reason, the greatest caution must be observed when adding obligations of the seller to the «C»-terms which seek to extend the seller's responsibility beyond the aforementioned «critical» point for the allocation of risk. It is of the very essence of the «C»-terms that the seller is relieved of any further risk and cost after he has duly fulfilled his contract by contracting for carriage and handing over the goods to the carrier and by providing for insurance under the CIF- and CIP-terms.

它是在裝運合同本質中為, 當賣主受拘束支付以常用的途逕及慣例方式運送貨物到同意的地方之一般運送費用, 對貨物的損失或損壞風險, 及附加費用起因於發生在貨物已適當地被交付待運送後發生事件, 推給買家。因此, « C » - 條件是可從所有其它條件區分的其中他們包含二«決定性(critical)»地點, 其中一個標明此地點予其此賣主受拘束要安排和負擔此一份運送合同的費用和另外一個為風險的分派點。為此原因, 最大的謹慎必需被保持當增加此賣主對此« C » - 條件義務其尋求擴大此賣主的責任超出前面所提述的«決定性(critical)»地點為風險的分派點。它是此« C » - 條件是非常重要的為賣主被免除任何另外風險和費用於他於到指定目的地港運費保費含內價(CIF) - 和到指定目的地運費保費付訖價(CIP)項下藉由運送合同簽立及經手此貨物給運送人 及提供保險已完整的履行他的合約。

 

The essential nature of the "C"-terms as shipment contracts is also illustrated by the common use of documentary credits as the preferred mode of payment used in such terms. Where it is agreed by the parties to the sale contract that the seller will be paid by presenting the agreed shipping documents to a bank under a documentary credit, it would be quite contrary to the central purpose of the documentary credit for the seller to bear further risks and costs after the moment when payment had been made under documentary credits or otherwise upon shipment and dispatch of the goods. Of course, the seller would have to bear the cost of the contract of carriage irrespective of whether freight is pre-paid upon shipment or is payable at destination (freight collect); however, additional costs which may result from events occurring subsequent to shipment and dispatch are necessarily for the account of the buyer. If the seller has to provide a contract of carriage which involves payment of duties, taxes and other charges, such costs will, of course, fall upon the seller to the extent that they are for his account under that contract. This is now explicitly set forth in the A6 clause of all "C"-terms.

"C" - 條件的本質係如運送合同是同樣係使用該條件時較好的付款模式由常用的跟單信用狀列舉。 當它是被由銷售合同各方同意著此賣主將會被付款於跟單信用狀項下藉由提示允諾的裝運單據給銀行, 它與跟單信用的主要目的會是相當相反的導使賣主負擔更多的風險和費用當已依據跟單信用項下或其它當裝運或遞交貨物完成付款之後。當然, 賣主將必須負擔運送合同的費用不論是否運費是於裝運時已預付或是將於目的地被支付(運費到付(freight collect)); 無論如何, 額外的費用其也許起因於事件隨後發生的裝運或遞交是必然為買家之所支付。如果賣主已提供運送合同其包含關稅, 稅費和其他費用, 這樣的費用將, 當然, 根據該合同隸屬賣主他們帳下的支付程度。現在這些明確地現放在所有"C" - 條件A6 條目中。

 

If it is customary to procure several contracts of carriage involving transhipment of the goods at intermediate places in order to reach the agreed destination, the seller would have to pay all these costs, including any costs incurred when the goods are transhipped from one means of conveyance to the other. If, however, the carrier exercised his rights under a transhipment -or similar clause - in order to avoid unexpected hindrances (such as ice, congestion, labour disturbances, government orders, war or warlike operations) then any additional cost resulting therefrom would be for the account of the buyer, since the seller's obligation is limited to procuring the usual contract of carriage.

如果它是慣性的取得好幾份的運送合同包含此貨物轉運在中介地方為要運達允諾的目的地, 賣主當必須支付所有這些費用, 包括任何費用發生當此貨物被轉運從一個運輸工具到另一個。如果, 無論如何, 此運送人行使他的權利在轉運 - 或類似的條目- 為了避免不可預期的妨礙(譬如冰、壅塞、勞工騷動、政府命令、戰爭或好戰的操作)然後任何額外的費用由之而起當是買家付帳, 因為賣主的義務僅止於取得同常的運送合同。

It happens quite often that the parties to the contract of sale wish to clarify the extent to which the seller should procure a contract of carriage including the costs of discharge. Since such costs are normally covered by the freight when the goods are carried by regular shipping lines, the contract of sale will frequently stipulate that the goods are to be so carried or at least that they are to be carried under «liner terms». In other cases, the word «landed» is added after CFR or CIF. However, it is advisable not to use abbreviations added to the «C»-terms unless, in the relevant trade, the meaning of the abbreviations is clearly understood and accepted by the contracting parties or under any applicable law or custom of the trade.

它相當經常發生著銷售合同各方希望確認此程度予其此賣主當取得運送合同包括卸放費用。因為該類費用是通常地由運費涵蓋當此貨物被以定期航線運送, 此銷售合同將通常地規定著此貨物將如何被運送或至少它們將被以«定期航線條件(liner terms)»運送。換言之, 此字詞«著陸(landed)»被加在到指定目的地港運費含內價(CFR) 或到指定目的地港運費保費含內價(CIF)之後。無論如何, 它是奉勸勿使用簡稱加諸於«C» - 條件除非, 在相關的貿易中, 簡稱的意思清楚地被由簽約各方或根據任何可適用的法律或貿易習俗瞭解和接受。

 

In particular, the seller should not - and indeed could not, without changing the very nature of the «C»-terms - undertake any obligation with respect to the arrival of the goods at destination, since the risk of any delay during the carriage is borne by the buyer. Thus, any obligation with respect to time must necessarily refer to the place of shipment or dispatch, for example, «shipment (dispatch) not later than...». An agreement for example, «CFR Hamburg not later than...» is really a misnomer and thus open to different possible interpretations. The parties could be taken to have meant either that the goods must actually arrive at Hamburg at the specified date, in which case the contract is not a shipment contract but an arrival contract or, alternatively, that the seller must ship the goods at such a time that they would normally arrive at Hamburg before the specified date unless the carriage would have been delayed because of unforeseen events.

特別是, 賣主不應該 - 和的確不能, 沒有改變«C» - 條件的多項本質 » - 承擔任何相關此貨物抵達目的地的任何義務, 因為於運送中的任何延遲風險本來就由買家負擔。因而, 任何相關時間的義務必須必然的根據裝運或遞交地方, 例如, «裝運(遞交)不得晚於(shipment (dispatch) not later than)...»。例如合約, «到指定目的地港Hamburg運費含內價不得晚於….(CFR Hamburg not later than)...»是真正錯誤的名詞和因此開啟不同的可能的解釋。各方可能會意覺著此貨物必須實際上在指定日期到達在漢堡(Hamburg) , 在此情況中此合同就不是裝運合同而是抵達合同或, 換言之, 此賣主必須裝船此貨物的該一時間為它們將通常地在指定日期之前抵達漢堡(Hamburg)除非此運送因為未預見到的事件被延遲。

 

It happens in commodity trades that goods are bought while they are at sea and that, in such cases, the word «afloat» is added after the trade term. Since the risk of loss of or damage to the goods would then, under the CFR- and CIF-terms, have passed from the seller to the buyer, difficulties of interpretation might arise. One possibility would be to maintain the ordinary meaning of the CFR- and CIF-terms with respect to the allocation of risk between seller and buyer, namely that risk passes on shipment: this would mean that the buyer might have to assume the consequences of events having already occurred at the time when the contract of sale enters into force. The other possibility would be to let the passing of the risk coincide with the time when the contract of sale is concluded. The former possibility might well be practical, since it is usually impossible to ascertain the condition of the goods while they are being carried.

它發生在商品貿易中為被買入的貨物當它們是在海上並且, 在這些情況下, 此字詞«漂洋(afloat)»被加諸於貿易條件之後。因此貨物損失或損壞的風險將隨後, 在到指定目的地港運費含內價(CFR) - 到指定目的地港運費保費含內價(CIF) 條件項下, 已自賣主移轉給買家, 解釋困難也許會升高。一種可能性當會主張一般此到指定目的地港運費含內價(CFR) - 到指定目的地港運費保費含內價(CIF) - 條件相關在賣主和買家之間風險的分派含意, 即該風險轉移在裝運: 這樣當意味著此買家得必需確信事件的結果已發生在當此銷售合同強制執行時間上。另一可能性會是讓風險轉移一致於銷售合同被決定時間。前種可能性也許較為實用, 因為它通常地不可能查明貨物當他們在運送中的情況。

 

For this reason the 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods article 68 stipulates that «if the circumstances so indicate, the risk is assumed by the buyer from the time the goods were handed over to the carrier who issued the documents embodying the contract of carriage». There is, however, an exception to this rule when «the seller knew or ought to have known that the goods had been lost or damaged and did not disclose this to the buyer». Thus, the interpretation of a CFR- or CIF-term with the addition of the word «afloat» will depend upon the law applicable to the contract of sale. The parties are advised to ascertain the applicable law and any solution which might follow therefrom. In case of doubt, the parties are advised to clarify the matter in their contract.

為此原因於1980年聯合國國際間銷售合同會議 (CISG) 68 條款規定著«如果情況如此標明(if the circumstances so indicate), 此風險是由此買主確認自貨物被經手給運送人他簽發此單據具體代表運送合同起 (the risk is assumed by the buyer from the time the goods were handed over to the carrier who issued the documents embodying the contract of carriage)».。這是, 無論如何, 這個規則一項例外當«此賣主已知道或必需要知道為此貨物已經遺失或損壞並且不顯露這個給買家(the seller knew or ought to have known that the goods had been lost damaged and did not disclose this to the buyer)».因而, 一個到指定目的港運費含內價(CFR) - 或到指定目的港運費保費含內價(CIF) - 條件及附帶的字詞«漂洋(afloat)»見解將取決於對此銷售合同可適用的法律。各方被奉勸要確信可適用的法律及任何解釋其可能其可能自此而來。如有存疑義, 各方被奉勸要確認於他們的合同中原委。

In practice, the parties frequently continue to use the traditional expression C&F (or С and F, C+F). Nevertheless, in most cases it would appear that they regard these expressions as equivalent to CFR. In order to avoid difficulties of interpreting their contract the parties should use the correct Incoterm which is CFR, the only world-wide-accepted standard abbreviation for the term «Cost and Freight (... named port of destination)».

在實務中, 各方經常地繼續使用此傳統表示詞C&F (C and F, C+F) 。然而, 在許多情況中它當出現著他們認為這些表示詞係對稱於在到指定目的地港運費含內價(CFR) 為了避免解釋他們的合同困難各方當使用此正確的國貿條規它是在到指定目的地港運費含內價(CFR), 此唯一普世接受標準條件縮詞 «費用加運費Cost and Freight (...指名目的地港(…named port of destination))»

 

CFR and CIF in A8 of Incoterms 1990 obliged the seller to provide a copy of the charterparty whenever his transport document (usually the bill of lading) contained a reference to the charterparty, for example, by the frequent notation «all other terms and conditions as per charterparty». Although, of course, a contracting party should always be able to ascertain all terms of his contract - preferably at the time of the conclusion of the contract - it appears that the practice to provide the charterparty as aforesaid has created problems particularly in connection with documentary credit transactions. The obligation of the seller under CFR and CIF to provide a copy of the charterparty together with other transport documents has been deleted in Incoterms 2000.

在到指定目的地港運費含內價(CFR) 到指定目的地港運費保費含內價(CIF) 在國貿條規(Incoterms) 1990 A8欄中迫使賣主提供租船契約副本當他的運送單據(通常指提單(bill of lading))包含一項查照租船契約, 例如, 由常用的註記«所有其它條件及情況係如租船契約(all other terms and conditions as per charterparty)»儘管, 當然, 一個締約方當總能確定所有他的合同的條件 最好在合同決定之時 它顯現著此實務提供前述的租船契約已造成困擾特別地在結合跟單信用交易。 此賣主的義務在到指定目的地港運費含內價(CFR) 和到指定目的地港運費保費含內價(CIF) 項下要提供一份副本的租船契約連同其它的運送單據已於國貿條規2000 (Incoterms 2000)中被刪除了。

 

Although the A8 clauses of Incoterms seek to ensure that the seller provides the buyer with «proof of delivery», it should be stressed that the seller fulfils that requirement when he provides the «usual» proof. Under CPT and CIP it would be the «usual transport document» and under CFR and CIF a bill of lading or a sea waybill. The transport documents must be «clean», meaning that they must not contain clauses or notations expressly declaring a defective condition of the goods and/or the packaging. If such clauses or notations appear in the document, it is regarded as «unclean» and would then not be accepted by banks in documentary credit transactions. However, it should be noted that a transport document even without such clauses or notations would usually not provide the buyer with incontrovertible proof as against the carrier that the goods were shipped in conformity with the stipulations of the contract of sale. Usually, the carrier would, in standardized text on the front page of the transport document, refuse to accept responsibility for information with respect to the goods by indicating that the particulars inserted in the transport document constitute the shipper's declarations and therefore that the information is only «said to be» as inserted in the document. Under most applicable laws and principles, the carrier must at least use reasonable means of checking the correctness of the information and his failure to do so may make him liable to the consignee. However, in container trade, the carrier's means of checking the contents in the container would not exist unless he himself was responsible for stowing the container.

縱然國貿條規 A8 條目尋找保證著此賣主提供此買家以«交付證明(proof of delivery)», 它應該被強調著此賣主履行該項要求當他提供此«通常(usual)»證明。在到指定地方運費付訖價(CPT) 到指定目的地運費保費付訖價(CIP) 項下它當是指«通常運送單據(usual transport document)» 和在到指定目的地港運費含內價(CFR) 到指定目的地港運費保費含內價(CIF) 項下一份提貨單或一份海運貨單。此運送單據必須是«清潔(clean)», 意味著他們必需不能包含條目或註記明白地宣稱一個貨物及/或包裝的瑕疵情況。如果該條目或註記出現在單據中, 它被認為«不清潔(unclean)» 和在跟單信用狀交易中不為銀行接受。無論如何, 當注意的為一份運送單據儘管沒有該類條目或註記當通常地不提供買家與明確的證明係對運送人為此貨物被裝運一致於銷售合同規定。通常地, 此運送人當, 在運送單據標準化文本首頁, 拒絕接受相關貨物訊息藉由標明著個別事項插入於運送單據中構成託運人聲明責任 及因此該此訊息是僅 «據悉是(said to be)»係差入於單據中。在多數可適用的法律和原則, 運送人必須至少使用合理方式檢查訊息正確性和他未能照做可能會造成他對收貨人有責任。無論如何, 在貨櫃貿易中, 此運送人檢查貨櫃內容方式當不存在除非他自己負責堆裝貨櫃。

There are only two terms which deal with insurance, namely CIF and CIP. Under these terms the seller is obliged to procure insurance for the benefit of the buyer. In other cases it is for the parties themselves to decide whether and to what extent they want to cover themselves by insurance. Since the seller takes out insurance for the benefit of the buyer, he would not know the buyer's precise requirements. Under the Institute Cargo Clauses drafted by the Institute of London Underwriters, insurance is available in «minimum cover» under Clause C, «medium cover» under Clause В and «most extended cover» under Clause A. Since in the sale of commodities under the CIF term the buyer may wish to sell the goods in transit to a subsequent buyer who in turn may wish to resell the goods again, it is impossible to know the insurance cover suitable to such subsequent buyers and, therefore, the minimum cover under CIF has traditionally been chosen with the possibility for the buyer to require the seller to take out additional insurance.

這兒僅有兩個條件其處理保險, 到指定目的地港運費保費含內價(CIF) 和到指定目的地運費保費付訖價(CIP)。於這些條件項下此賣家有義務為買主利益取得保險。在其它情況中它是為各方他們自己以決定是否及何種程度他們希望藉由保險涵蓋他們自己。因為此賣主以買主利益執行保險, 他當不知道此買家的精確要求。在倫敦保險商學院起草之貨物條目項下, 保險是有效的在條目C 項下«最小保險範圍(minimum cover)», B條目項下«中等保險範圍(medium cover)»及在A條目項下«最大延伸保險範圍(most extended cover)»。因為在到指定目的地港運費保費含內價(CIF) 條件項下於商品銷售中此買家得希望賣出貨物轉手給一位後續買主他依序也許希望再度出售此貨物, 它不可能知道保險涵蓋範圍適合該類後續買主並且因此,到指定目的地港運費保費含內價(CIF) 項下此最小保險範圍有傳統地可能為此買主選擇以要求此賣主執行附加保險。

 

Minimum cover is however unsuitable for sale of manufactured goods where the risk of theft, pilferage or improper handling or custody of the goods would require more than the cover available under Clause C. Since CIP, as distinguished from CIF, would normally not be used for the sale of commodities, it would have been feasible to adopt the most extended cover under CIP rather than the minimum cover under CIF. But to vary the seller's insurance obligation under CIF and CIP would lead to confusion and both terms therefore limit the seller's insurance obligation to the minimum cover. It is particularly important for the CIP-buyer to observe this: should additional cover be required, he should agree with the seller that the latter could take out additional insurance or, alternatively, arrange for extended insurance cover himself. There are also particular instances where the buyer may wish to obtain even more protection than is available under Institute Clause A, for example insurance against war, riots, civil commotion, strikes or other labour disturbances. If he wishes the seller to arrange such insurance he must instruct him accordingly in which case the seller would have to provide such insurance if procurable.

最小保險範圍是無論如何不適合製造品的銷售當其風險為盜竊, 偷竊或未合適經手或監管此貨物當要求比C條目項下有效的更多的涵蓋範圍。儘管到指定目的地運費保費付訖價(CIP), 係自到指定目的地港運費保費含內價(CIF)被區分出, 當通常地不被使用於商品銷售, 它當將會是確實可行的為寧可比在到指定目的地港運費保費含內價(CIF)項下最小的保險範圍在到指定目的地運費保費付訖價(CIP)項下採取最大延伸的保險範圍。但為改變在到指定目的地港運費保費含內價(CIF) 和到指定目的地運費保費付訖價(CIP) 項下賣主的保險義務當會導致混亂並且這兩個條件因此對此賣主的保險義務僅止於最小保險範圍。對於到指定目的地運費保費付訖價(CIP) - 買家它是特別地重要以遵守這項: 當附加的保險範圍是必要的, 他當同意此賣主為此後者能執行附加保險或, 二者選一, 他自己安排延伸保險範圍。這個是同樣特別的實例當買家可能希望獲得僅比A條目可用的更多的保護, 例如對於戰爭、暴亂、暴動, 罷工或其他勞工滋擾保險。如果他希望此賣主安排該類的保險他隨後必須指示他 在此況中如果可取得時此賣主當必須提供該類的保險。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9.4 The «D»-terms are different in nature from the «C»-terms, since the seller according to the «D»-terms is responsible for the arrival of the goods at the agreed place or point of destination at the border or within the country of import. The seller must bear all risks and costs in bringing the goods thereto. Hence, the «D»-terms signify arrival contracts, while the «C»-terms evidence departure (shipment) contracts.

9.4«D» - 條件是在本質中不同於«C» - 條件, 因為此賣主根據此«D» - 條件是負責貨物的抵達允諾地方或在邊境目的地地點 於進口國內。此賣主必須負擔所有帶送此貨物到達該處之風險和費用。因此, 此此«D» - 條件象徵抵達合同, 當此«C» - 條件顯然為發貨(裝運)合同。

 

Under the «D» - terms except DDP the seller does not have to deliver the goods cleared for import in the country of destination.

在此«D» - 條件項下除了到指定目的地稅後交貨價(DDP)外此賣主不須交付貨物於目的地國家清關待進口。

 

Traditionally, the seller had the obligation to clear the goods for import under DEQ, since the goods had to be landed on the quay and thus were brought into the country of import. But owing to changes in customs clearance procedures in most countries, it is now more appropriate that the party domiciled in the country concerned undertakes the clearance and pays the duties and other charges. Thus, a change in DEQ has been made for the same reason as the change in FAS previously mentioned. As in FAS, in DEQ the change has been marked with capital letters in the preamble.

傳統上地, 在到指定目的地港碼頭交貨價(DEQ) 項下此賣主有義務為貨物清關待進口, 儘管此貨物必須被著陸於碼頭且因此被帶入進口國。但由於在很多國家中在海關清關手續變化, 它是現在更加適當為關於該方定居於該國者有義務於該項清關及及支付關稅及其它費用。因而, 在到指定目的地港碼頭交貨價(DEQ)中已有做了一個改變 同樣的理由在到指定裝運港船邊交貨價(FAS)中有如前提及的改變。如同在到指定裝運港船邊交貨價(FAS), 在到指定目的地港碼頭交貨價(DEQ)中此項改變已用大寫字母被標記在序文中。

It appears that in many countries trade terms not included in Incoterms are used particularly in railway traffic («franco border», «franco-frontiere», «Frei Grenze»). However, under such terms it is normally not intended that the seller should assume the risk of loss of or damage to goods during the transport up to the border. It would be preferable in these circumstances to use CPT indicating the border. If, on the other hand, the parties intend that the seller should bear the risk during the transport DAF indicating the border would be appropriate.

它顯現著在許多國家貿易條件中並不含入國貿條規被使用特別地在鐵路運輸中跨越國界(franco border)», «跨越邊境(franco-frontiere)», «穿越邊鎮(Frei Grenze)»)。無論如何, 於該類條件項下它是通常地無意欲該此賣主當擔任貨物於運送到國界中間的損失或損壞風險。它當是更較合適的在此類情況中使用到指定地方運費付訖價(CPT)標明國界。如果, 在另一方面, 各方意欲該此賣主當負擔此在運送中間風險到指定邊境交貨價(DAF)標明國界將是合適的。

 

The DDU term was added in the 1990 version of Incoterms. The term fulfils an important function whenever the seller is prepared to deliver the goods in the country of destination without clearing the goods for import and paying the duty. In countries where import clearance may be difficult and time consuming, it may be risky for the seller to undertake an obligation to deliver the goods beyond the customs clearance point. Although, according to DDU B5 and B6, the buyer would have to bear the additional risks and costs which might follow from his failure to fulfil his obligations to clear the goods for import, the seller is advised not to use the DDU term in countries where difficulties might be expected in clearing the goods for import.

此到指定目的地稅前交貨價(DDU)條件被加入於1990年版國貿條規中。此條件履行一個重要作用每當賣主準備在目的地國家交付此貨物不為此貨物清關待進口和及支付關稅。在許多國家中當地進口清關也許是困難和費時的,它對賣主也許是危險的要承擔一項義務以交付此貨物超越該海關清關地點。雖然, 根據到指定目的地稅前交貨價(DDU) B5 B6, 此買家當必須負擔附加的風險和費用其或許導致他的未能履行他的義務清關貨物待進口, 此賣主被奉勸不要使用到指定目的地稅前交貨價(DDU)條件在許多國家中當地困難可被預期在清關此貨物待進口。

 

 

 

 

10. THE EXPRESSION «NO OBLIGATION»

10. 此表示詞«無義務»

As appears from the expressions «the seller must» and «the buyer must» Incoterms are only concerned with the obligations which the parties owe to each other. The words «no obligation» have therefore been inserted whenever one party does not owe an obligation to the other party. Thus, if for instance according to A3 of the respective term the seller has to arrange and pay for the contract of carriage we find the words «no obligation» under the heading «contract of carriage» in B3 a) setting forth the buyer's position. Again, where neither party owes the other an obligation, the words «no obligation» will appear with respect to both parties, for example, with respect to insurance.

係如顯現出自表示詞«此賣主必須(the seller must)» «此買家必須(the buyer

must)»國貿條規(Incoterms)是僅關心此義務其為各方對彼此所應負有。此字詞«無義務(no obligation)»因此被插入每當一方不負有對另一方一項義務。因而, 如果例如根據A3各別的條件 此賣主必須安排和支付運送合同我們發現此字詞«無義務(no obligation)»在此標題«運送合同(contract of carriage)»B3 a)項下宣告此買方的職務。再次地, 當任一方負有另一方一項義務, 此字詞«無義務(no obligation)»將出現在相關與兩方, 例如, 相關與保險。

 

In either case, it is important to point out that even though one party may be under "no obligation" towards the other to perform a certain task, this does not mean that it is not in his interest to perform that task. Thus, for example, just because a CFR buyer owes his seller no duty to make a contract of insurance under B4, it is clearly in his interest to make such a contract, the seller being under no such obligation to procure insurance cover under A4.

在另外的情況中, 它是重要的指出該即使一方於 "無義務(no obligation) " 項下對另一方要執行某一工作, 這不意味著它在他的意願中無需執行該項工作。因而, 例如, 就因為一個到指定目的地港運費含內價(CFR) 買家負有他的賣主在B4項下無責任處理保險合同, 它是清楚地在他的意願中處理該一類合同, 此賣主沒有該義務以取得在A4 項下的保險範圍。

 

 

 

11. VARIANTS OF INCOTERMS

11. 國貿條規的差異

 

In practice, it frequently happens that the parties themselves by adding words to an Incoterm seek further precision than the term could offer. It should be underlined that Incoterms give no guidance whatsoever for such additions. Thus, if the parties cannot rely on a well-established custom of the trade for the interpretation of such additions they may encounter serious problems when no consistent understanding of the additions could be proven.

於實務中, 它時常地發生著各方他們自己藉由增加字詞給一項國貿條規中尋求比此條件所能提供的更為精確。它當被特別注意該國貿條規無法為該類的加註給予指導。因而, 如果各方不能信賴一個已建立良好貿易習慣為該類加註的解釋他們也許會遭遇到嚴重困難當這些加註無一致性的認同能被證明。

 

If for instance the common expressions «FOB stowed» or «EXW loaded» are used, it is impossible to establish a world-wide understanding to the effect that the seller's obligations are extended not only with respect to the cost of actually loading the goods in the ship or on the vehicle respectively but also include the risk of fortuitous loss of or damage to the goods in the process of stowage and loading. For these reasons, the parties are strongly advised to clarify whether they only mean that the function or the cost of the stowage and loading operations should fall upon the seller or whether he should also bear the risk until the stowage and loading has actually been completed. These are questions to which Incoterms do not provide an answer:

如果舉例此一般的表示詞«FOB stowed» or «EXW loaded»被使用, 它是不可能的以建立一個全世界對此事件認同此賣主的義務被延伸不僅相關真正地裝載貨物於船中或車輛上各別地費用 而且包含此貨物於裝儲及裝載過程中意外損失或損壞風險。為這些原因, 各方強烈地被奉勸要確認不管他們僅意味著此作用或裝儲及裝載操作費用當歸屬於此賣主或是否他當同樣負擔此風險直到此裝儲及裝載已真正地被完成。這些是問題與其國貿條規不提供任一解答:

 

consequently, if the contract too fails expressly to describe the parties' intentions, the parties may be put to much unnecessary trouble and cost.

因此, 如果合同由於未能太明確地描述各方的意圖, 各方可能被投入很多不必要的麻煩和費用。

Although Incoterms 2000 do not provide for many of these commonly used variants, the preambles to certain trade terms do alert the parties to the need for special contractual terms if the parties wish to go beyond the stipulations of Incoterms.

雖然國貿條規2000 (Incoterms 2000)不提供許多這些通常地使用差異, 此序文對某些貿易條件允許更換各方有此需要為特別合同的條件 如果各方希望超越國貿條規的規定。

EXW

到指定地點工廠交貨價

the added obligation for the seller to load the goods on the buyer's collecting vehicle;

此增加的義務為使賣主裝載此貨物在此買家的收集車輛上;

CIF/CIP

到指定目的地港運費保費含內價 / 到指定目的地運費保費付訖價

the buyer's need for additional insurance;

此買家的需要為附加保險;

DEQ

到指定目的地港碼頭交貨價

the added obligation for the seller to pay for costs after discharge.

此增加的義務為使賣主支付卸放後的費用。

In some cases sellers and buyers refer to commercial practice in liner and charter party trade. In these circumstances, it is necessary to clearly distinguish between the obligations of the parties under the contract of carriage and their obligations to each other under the contract of sale. Unfortunately, there are no authoritative definitions of expressions such as «liner terms» and «terminal handling charges» (THC). Distribution of costs under such terms may differ in different places and change from time to time. The parties are recommended to clarify in the contract of sale how such costs should be distributed between themselves.

在某些情況中賣主和買家有關商業實務定期航線及租船契約交易。在這些情況中, 它是必需要清楚地區別各方於運送合同項下的義務及於銷售合同項下他們彼此的義務。不幸地, 這兒是沒有授權定義表示詞諸如«定期航線(liner terms)» and «貨棧操作費(terminal handling charges)» (THC)。於該等條件下配送費用在不同的地方可能不同並且時常在改變。各方被推薦要在銷售合同中確認多少該類費用當於他們自己之間被分配。

 

Expressions frequently used in charterparties, such as «FOB stowed», «FOB stowed and trimmed», are sometimes used in contracts of sale in order to clarify to what extent the seller under FOB has to perform stowage and trimming of the goods onboard the ship. Where such words are added, it is necessary to clarify in the contract of sale whether the added obligations only relate to costs or to both costs and risks.

表示詞們經常地被使用在租船契約中, 譬如«到指定裝運港船上交貨裝儲價 (FOB stowed)», «到指定裝運港船上交貨裝儲及理貨價 (FOB stowed and trimmed)», 是有時被使用在銷售合同中以確認於到指定裝運港船上交貨價(FOB)項下何種程度此賣主必需執行裝儲及理貨此貨物裝船。那當該類字詞被加註, 它是必需要在銷售合同確認是否此增加的義務僅關於費用或費用及風險兩者。

 

As has been said, every effort has been made to ensure that Incoterms reflect the most common commercial practice. However in some cases - particularly where Incoterms 2000 differ from Incoterms 1990 - the parties may wish the trade terms to operate differently. They are reminded of such options in the preamble of the terms signalled by the word «However».

如已說過的, 已做的每一努力為確信該國貿條規會反應出多數常態商業實務。無論如何於某些情況中 - 特別地在國貿條規 2000 (Incoterms 2000) 與國貿條規 1990 (Incoterms 1990)不同之處 - 各方可能希望不同地操作此貿易條件。他們被提醒該類意見在此條件序文中藉由此字詞«無論如何(However)被警訊。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12. CUSTOMS OF THE PORT OR OF A PARTICULAR TRADE

12. 此港口或所屬一些特殊貿易的習性

Since Incoterms provide a set of terms for use in different trades and regions it is impossible always to set forth the obligations of the parties with precision. To some extent it is therefore necessary to refer to the custom of the port or of the particular trade or to the practices which the parties themselves may have established in their previous dealings (cf. article 9 of the 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods). It is of course desirable that sellers and buyers keep themselves duly informed of such customs when they negotiate their contract and that, whenever uncertainty arises, they clarify their legal position by appropriate clauses in their contract of sale. Such special provisions in the individual contract would supersede or vary anything that is set forth as a rule of interpretation in the various Incoterms.

儘管國貿條規提供一整套的條件為使用在不同的貿易及地區它是不可能的總是精細的宣告此各方的義務。在某種程度上它是因此必需要參考港口或各別貿易或於該實務上的習性 (這些習性)各方在他們的先前交易中他們自己可能已建立(參照. 1980年聯合國國際間銷售合同會議 (CISG) 9) 它是當然欣慰著賣主們和買家們保持他們自己完整地被通告該等習性 當它們磋商他們的合同及此(習性), 每當不確定性升高, 他們藉由在他們銷售合同中合適條目確認它們合法職務。 該類特別規定於各別的合同中當替換或改變任何事情 該等是宣告於此多樣的國貿條規中係如一種解釋的規則。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13. THE BUYER'S OPTIONS ASTOTHE PLACE OF SHIPMENT

13.關於裝運地方此買家的選擇

 

In some situations, it may not be possible at the time when the contract of sale is entered into to decide precisely on the exact point or even the place where the goods should be delivered by the seller for carriage. For instance reference might have been made at this stage merely to a «range» or to a rather large place, for example, seaport, and it is then usually stipulated that the buyer has the right or duty to name later on the more precise point within the range or the place. If the buyer has a duty to name the precise point as aforesaid his failure to do so might result in liability to bear the risks and additional costs resulting from such failure (B5/B7 of all terms). In addition, the buyer's failure to use his right to indicate the point may give the seller the right to select the point which best suits his purpose (FCA A4).

在某些情況中, 它或許不是可能的在此時間點上當此銷售合同被進入要精確決定正確地點或僅管此地方那兒此貨物當被由此賣主交付待運送。例如參考可能已被做在這個階段僅對一個«範圍(range)»或對一個相當大地方, 例如, 海港, 和它屆時通常地被規定著此買家有此權利或責任以稍後指名在此範圍或此地方更為精確地點。如果此買家有一責任要指名如前所言精確地點()他的未能照做可能導致有義務要負擔此風險和附加費用導因自該項未能(所有條件之B5/B7)。另外, 此買家的未能以行使他的權利以標明此地點可能給此賣主權力選擇最合適他的目的的地點(FCA A4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14. CUSTOMS CLEARANCE

14. 海關清關

The term «customs clearance» has given rise to misunderstandings. Thus, whenever reference is made to an obligation of the seller or the buyer to undertake obligations in connection with passing the goods through customs of the country of export or import it is now made clear that this obligation does not only include the payment of duty and other charges but also the performance and payment of whatever administrative matters are connected with the passing of the goods through customs and the information to the authorities in this connection. Further, it has - although quite wrongfully - been considered in some quarters inappropriate to use terms dealing with the obligation to clear the goods through customs when, as in intra-European Union trade or other free trade areas, there is no longer any obligation to pay duty and no restrictions relating to import or export. In order to clarify the situation, the words «where applicable» have been added in the A2 and B2, A6 and B6 clauses of the relevant Incoterms in order for them to be used without any ambiguity where no customs procedures are required.

此條件«海關清關(customs clearance)»會提升了誤解。因而, 每當參考被做為此賣主或買家的一項義務 要承擔義務有關通過貨物經由此出口或進口國海關 它是現在成為清楚著這個義務 不但包含關稅的支付及其它支出 而且此執行各項行政事務的支出 ()是和此通過此貨物經由海關及在這項聯繫當局資訊(支出)。進一步, 它有 - 雖然非常錯誤地 被視為在某些處所不合適使用條件處理此義務以經由海關清關貨物當, 係如在歐盟內陸貿易或其它自由貿易區, 那兒是不再有任何義務以支付關稅和無管制相關進口或出口。為了確認此情況, 此字詞«那兒可適用(where applicable)»已被加註於此相關國貿條規的A2 B2 A6 B6 條目中 為使他們沒有任何曖昧被使用當那兒無海關手續被要求。

 

It is normally desirable that customs clearance is arranged by the party domiciled in the country where such clearance should take place or at least by somebody acting there on his behalf. Thus, the exporter should normally clear the goods for export, while the importer should clear the goods for import.

它是一般地期許著海關清關是被由在此國家居住各方安排那兒該清關當發生或至少該地有人可為它的代理。因而, 此出口商當通常地清關此貨物待出口, 即時此進口商當清關此貨物待進口。

Incoterms 1990 departed from this under the trade terms EXW and FAS (export clearance duty on the buyer) and DEQ (import clearance duty on the seller) but in Incoterms 2000 FAS and DEQ place the duty of clearing the goods for export on the seller and to clear them for import on the buyer respectively, while EXW -representing the seller's minimum obligation - has been left unamended (export clearance duty on the buyer). Under DDP the seller specifically agrees to do what follows from the very name of the term - Delivered Duty Paid - namely to clear the goods for import and pay any duty as a consequence thereof.

於貿易條件於此貿易條件到指定地點工廠交貨價(EXW) 和到指定裝運港船邊交貨價(FAS) (出口清關則任在買家) 到指定目的地港碼頭交貨價(DEQ) (進口清關責任在賣主) 項下國貿條規1990 (Incoterms 1990) 自此處區分 但在國貿條規2000 (Incoterms 2000) 到指定裝運港船邊交貨價(FAS) 和到指定目的地港碼頭交貨價(DEQ) 步驟個別地此清關貨物待出口責任在此賣方及要清關它們待進口在買主, 當到指定地點工廠交貨價(EXW) - 代表賣主的最小義務 - 仍保留未修改(出口清關責任在買主) 在到指定目的地稅後交貨價 (DDP)項下此賣主特別地同意做那些後續之此條件的該不同名目 - 交付時關稅已付 由是即要清關此貨物待進口及支付任何關稅為一個結局。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15. PACKAGING

15. 包裝

 

In most cases, the parties would know beforehand which packaging is required for the safe carriage of the goods to destination. However, since the seller's obligation to pack the goods may well vary according to the type and duration of the transport envisaged, it has been felt necessary to stipulate that the seller is obliged to pack the goods in such a manner as is required for the transport, but only to the extent that the circumstances relating to the transport are made known to him before the contract of sale is concluded (cf. articles 35.1. and 35.2.b. of the 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods where the goods, including packaging, must be «fit for any particular purpose expressly or impliedly made known to the seller at the time of the conclusion of the contract, except where the circumstances show that the buyer did not rely, or that it was unreasonable for him to rely, on the seller's skill and judgement»).

在許多情況下, 各方當知道交手前其包裝被要求要能讓此貨物安全運送到目的地。無論如何, 因為依據此運送外在的型式和期間 此賣主的義務要包裝此貨物也許有好多變化, 它已被感覺有需要要規定著此賣主有義務包裝此貨物以該方式係為運送所需求者, 但僅於程度為此相關運送環境為他所週知於銷售合同議決前 (參閱1980年聯合國國際間銷售合同會議 (CISG)35.135.2.b條款當此貨物, 包括包裝, 必須«被適合任何特別目的明示地或暗示地給賣主週知於合同議決同時, 除非當時的情況顯示著此買主不信賴, 或者它是無理由要他信賴, 於此賣主的技巧和判斷(fit for any particular purpose expressly or impliedly made known to the seller at the time of the conclusion of the contract, except where the circumstances show that the buyer did not rely, or that it was unreasonable for him to rely, on the seller's skill and judgement) »)

 

 

 

 

 

 

16. INSPECTION OF GOODS

16. 貨物的檢查

In many cases, the buyer may be well advised to arrange for inspection of the goods before or at the time they are handed over by the seller for carriage (so-called pre-shipment inspection or PSI). Unless the contract stipulates otherwise, the buyer would himself have to pay the cost for such inspection that is arranged in his own interest. However, if the inspection has been made in order to enable the seller to comply with any mandatory rules applicable to the export of the goods in his own country, the seller would have to pay for that inspection, unless the EXW term is used, in which case the costs of such inspection are for the account of the buyer.

在許多情況下, 此買家也許最好被奉勸要安排貨物的檢查早於或同時於他們被由賣家移交待運送 (所謂的裝船前檢查或PSI) 除非合同規定否則, 此買家他自己當必須支付在他自己的意願中被安排該項檢查費用。 無論如何, 如果此檢查已被做為能讓此賣主遵守任何適用在他自己的國家此貨物出口法規, 此賣主當必須支付該檢查費用, 除非此到指定地點工廠交貨價(EXW) 條件被使用, 在這樣的情況中該類檢查的費用是為買家的帳。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17. MODE OF TRANSPORT AND THE APPROPRIATE INCOTERM 2000

17. 運送模式和此適當的國貿條規2000 (INCOTERM 2000)

 

Any mode of transport  

任何運送模式

Group E

類別E

EXW

Ex Works (... named place)

到指定地點工廠交貨價 (…. 指定地點)

Group F

類別 F

FCA

Free Carrier (... named place)

到指定地方貨交運送人價 (... 指定地方)

Group С

類別 C

CPT

Carriage Paid To (... named place of destination)

到指定地方運費付訖價 (… 指定目的地)

 

CIP

Carriage and Insurance Paid To (... named place of destination)

到指定目的地運費保費付訖價(... 指定目的地)

Group D

類別 D

DAF

Delivered At Frontier (... named place)

到指定邊境交貨價 (... 指定邊境)

 

DDU

Delivered Duty Unpaid (... named place of destination)

到指定目的地稅前交貨價 (… 指定目的地)

 

DDP

Delivered Duty Paid (... named place of destination)

到指定目的地稅後交貨價 (… 指定目的地)

Maritime and inland waterway transport only

限於海運及內陸水路運送

Group F

類別 F

FAS

Free Alongside Ship (... named port of shipment)

到指定裝運港船邊交貨價 (... 指定裝運港)

 

FOB

Free On Board (... named port of shipment)

到指定裝運港船上交貨價 (...指定裝運港)

Group С

類別 C

CFR

Cost and Freight (... named port of destination)

到指定目的地港運費含內價(... 指定目的港)

 

CIF

Cost, Insurance and Freight (... named port of destination)

到指定目的地港運費保費含內價 (... 指定目的港)

Group D

類別 D

DES

DES Delivered Ex Ship (... named port of destination)

到指定目的地港船上交貨價 (... 指定目的港)

Ex.ship

到指定目的地港船上交貨價 (... 指定目的港)

 

DEQ

Delivered Ex Quay (... named port of destination)

到指定目的地港碼頭交貨價 (... 指定目的港)

Ex.quai

到指定目的地港碼頭交貨價 (... 指定目的港)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18. THE RECOMMENDED USE

18. 此被推薦的用法

In some cases the preamble recommends the use or non-use of a particular term. This is particularly important with respect to the choice between FCA and FOB. Regrettably, merchants continue to use FOB when it is totally out of place thereby causing the seller to incur risks subsequent to the handing over of the goods to the carrier named by the buyer. FOB is only appropriate to use where the goods are intended to be delivered «across the ship's rail» or, in any event, to the ship and not where the goods are handed over to the carrier for subsequent entry into the ship, for example stowed in containers or loaded on lorries or wagons in so-called roll on - roll off traffic. Thus, a strong warning has been made in the preamble of FOB that the term should not be used when the parties do not intend delivery across the ship's rail.

某些情況下此序文推薦使用或不使用一個特殊條件。這是特別地重要相關於此選擇在於 到指定地方貨交運送人價(FCA) 到指定裝運港船上交貨價(FOB)之間。遺憾地, 客商繼續使用 到指定裝運港船上交貨價(FOB)它是完全地不恰當藉以導致此賣家陷於後續風險於此移交此貨物給由此買家指名的運送人。到指定裝運港船上交貨價(FOB)是僅合適使用當此貨物意欲被交付 «跨越此船弦(across the ship's rail)» , 在任何情況中, 對此船舶而且不管此貨物被移交給此運送人為後續裝入船舶, 例如裝儲於貨櫃內或裝載於平板車或箱型車於所謂轉入 轉出運輸。因而,於到指定裝運港船上交貨價(FOB)序文中做了一個強烈警告為當各方無意欲交付跨越此船弦時不要被使用。

 

It happens that the parties by mistake use terms intended for carriage of goods by sea also when another mode of transport is contemplated. This may put the seller in the unfortunate position that he cannot fulfil his obligation to tender the proper document to the buyer (for example a bill of lading, sea waybill or the electronic equivalent). The chart printed at paragraph 17 above makes clear which trade term in Incoterms 2000 it is appropriate to use for which mode of transport. Also, it is indicated in the preamble of each term whether it can be used for all modes of transport or only for carriage of goods by sea.

它發生著各方由因錯誤使用條件意欲以海洋運送貨物同時當另一種運送模式也被思算(使用), 此舉可能會推賣家於不好的處境為他無法履行他的義務提供適當的單據給買方 (例如提貨單, 海運貨單或電子化同等品) 該章印於第17節上面弄清楚在國貿條規2000 (Incoterms 2000)中何種貿易條件它是合適於為何種運送輸模式使用。 並且, 它被標明在序文中每一個搖件不管是否它能被使用於所有的運送模式或僅為以海洋運送貨物。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19. THE BILL OF LADING AND ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

19. 此提單和電子化商務

 

Traditionally, the on board bill of lading has been the only acceptable document to be presented by the seller under the CFR and CIF terms. The bill of lading fulfils three important functions, namely:

傳統地, 此已裝船提單曾是此唯一可接受的單據以被由賣家提示於CFRCIF條件項下。此提單履行三個重要功用, :

• proof of delivery of the goods on board the vessel;

證明交付此貨物已裝運在船上;

• evidence of the contract of carriage; and

運送合同的證據; 並且

• a means of transferring rights to the goods in transit to another party by the transfer of the paper document to him.

一種權利轉讓工具以讓此貨物移轉給它方藉由轉讓文書單據給他。

Transport documents other than the bill of lading would fulfil the two first-mentioned functions, but would not control the delivery of the goods at destination or enable a buyer to sell the goods in transit by surrendering the paper document to his buyer. Instead, other transport documents would name the party entitled to receive the goods at destination. The fact that the possession of the bill of lading is required in order to obtain the goods from the carrier at destination makes it particularly difficult to replace by electronic means of communication.

運送單據不同於提單當履行前二個已提述的功用, 但當不能控制此交付貨物在目的地或讓一位買家銷售此貨物藉由讓與此文書單據轉移給他的買主。 替代的, 其它運送單據當指名各方有權在目的地接收此貨物。 此事實為此提單的持有是必需的 以便自在目的地運送人取得貨物 讓它特別地困難藉由電子通訊方式替代。

Further, it is customary to issue bills of lading in several originals but it is, of course, of vital importance for a buyer or a bank acting upon his instructions in paying the seller to ensure that all originals are surrendered by the seller (so-called «full set»). This is also a requirement under the ICC Rules for Documentary Credits (the so-called ICC Uniform Customs and Practice, «UCP»;current version at date of publication of Incoterms 2000: ICC publication 500).

進一步, 它是習慣簽發多份的正本提單 但它是, 當然, 至關重要為買家或銀行依指示付款給此賣家以確認該所有的正本已由賣家讓與 (所謂的 «全套(full set) ») 這是也是一項要求 於此國際商會(ICC)跟單信用狀規則項下 (此所謂國際商會(ICC) 信用狀統一慣例(Uniform Customs and Practice ), «UCP»;  最近版本近期發行為國貿條規2000: 國際商會第500號出版物(ICC publication 500))

 

The transport document must evidence not only delivery of the goods to the carrier but also that the goods, as far as could be ascertained by the carrier, were received in good order and condition. Any notation on the transport document which would indicate that the goods had not been in such condition would make the document «unclean» and would thus make it unacceptable under the UCP.

此運送單據必須證明不僅交付此貨物給此運送人而且該此貨物, 盡可能被由此運送人確認, 被接收於良好狀況中。任何註記於運送單據上其當標明著此貨物並非以該(良好)情況當造成此單據 «不清潔(unclean) » 當因而讓它於信用狀統一慣例(UCP)項下為不可接受的

 

In spite of the particular legal nature of the bill of lading it is expected that it will be replaced by electronic means in the near future. The 1990 version of Incoterms had already taken this expected development into proper account. According to the A8 clauses, paper documents may be replaced by electronic messages provided the parties have agreed to communicate electronically. Such messages could be transmitted directly to the party concerned or through a third party providing added-value services. One such service that can be usefully provided by a third party is registration of successive holders of a bill of lading. Systems providing such services, such as the so-called BOLERO service, may require further support by appropriate legal norms and principles as evidenced by the CMI 1990 Rules for Electronic Bills of Lading and articles 16-17 of the 1996 UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce.

儘管此提單的特殊法律本質它被期望著它在最近將來將被由電子方式所取代。此1990版本的國貿條規(Incoterms)已經預期此項發展納入適當考量。根據A8 條目, 文書單據可由電子訊息所替代假如各方同意電子化聯通。該訊息將被直接地轉遞給各方相關或經由一個第三者提供加值服務。一項該等服務其能通常地被提供藉由一個是登記為一份提單持有者的第三者。這類服務, 諸如此所謂BOLERO服務, 得要求更多支援藉由合法標準支援及準則見證藉由1990 CM (電腦管理指令)電子提單規則及於1996UNCITRAL 電子交換法定模式 16-17款。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20. NON-NEGOTIABLE TRANSPORT DOCUMENTS INSTEAD OF BILLS OF LADING

20. 不可轉讓運送單據代替提單

 

In recent years, a considerable simplification of documentary practices has been achieved. Bills of lading are frequently replaced by non-negotiable documents similar to those which are used for other modes of transport than carriage by sea. These documents are called «sea waybills», «liner waybills», «freight receipts», or variants of such expressions. Non-negotiable documents are quite satisfactory to use except where the buyer wishes to sell the goods in transit by surrendering a paper document to the new buyer. In order to make this possible, the obligation of the seller to provide a bill of lading under CFR and CIF must necessarily be retained. However, when the contracting parties know that the buyer does not contemplate selling the goods in transit, they may specifically agree to relieve the seller from the obligation to provide a bill of lading, or, alternatively, they may use CPT and CIP where there is no requirement to provide a bill of lading.

近年來, 可觀的簡式單據實務已被改進。提單通常地由不可轉讓的單據所取代 類似此類單據其被使用為以海洋運送以外其它運送模式。這些單據被叫做 «海洋貨單(sea waybills)»,  «定期航線貨單(liner waybills)»,  «運輸收據(freight receipts)», 或該類多種表示詞。 不可轉讓單據是非常易於滿足使用除非當此買家希望銷售此貨物藉由讓與文書單據移轉給此新的買主。 為化此為可能, 此賣家義務以提供一份提單 於到指定目的地港運費含內價(CFR)及到指定目的地港運費保費含內價(CIF)項下 必需必要被保存。無論如何, 當此簽約方知道此買主不會預期要轉售此貨物, 他們可以特別地同意解除此賣主提供一份提單義務, , 替代地, 他們得使用到指定地方運費付訖價(CPT)及到指定目的地運費保費付訖價(CIP)當他們無要求要提供一份提單。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

21. THE RIGHT TO GIVE INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CARRIER

21. 此權利給予指示給此運送人

 

A buyer paying for the goods under a «C»-term should ensure that the seller upon payment is prevented from disposing of the goods by giving new instructions to the carrier. Some transport documents used for particular modes of transport (air, road or rail) offer the contracting parties a possibility to bar the seller from giving such new instructions to the carrier by providing the buyer with a particular original or duplicate of the waybill. However, the documents used instead of bills of lading for maritime carriage do not normally contain such a barring function. The Comite Maritime International has remedied this shortcoming of the above-mentioned documents by introducing the 1990 «Uniform Rules for Sea Waybills» enabling the parties to insert a «no-disposal» clause whereby the seller surrenders the right to dispose of the goods by instructions to the carrier to deliver the goods to somebody else or at another place than stipulated in the waybill.

於一個«C» - 條件項下一位買家支付貨款當確信此賣家於付款時被阻止不能藉由給運送人一新的指示支配此貨物。某些運送單據使用在單獨的運送模式(空運, 路運或鐵路運輸)提供此簽約各方一種可能性以攔阻此賣家給予該類新的指示給此運送人 藉以取得提供此買家一份單獨的第一或第二套正本貨單。 無論如何, 此單據被使用以替代海洋運送提單通常地不包含這類攔阻功能。國際海洋運送組織(The Comite Maritime International)為補救此項上列所提及單據的缺點於1990年介紹 «海運貨單統一規則(Uniform Rules for Sea Waybills)»以讓各方能補入«不得處置(no-disposal)»條款 由是此賣方藉由指示此運送人超越在貨單中規定交付此貨物給某人其它或在另一個地方讓與此處置貨物權利。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22. ICC ARBITRATION

22. 國際商會(ICC) 仲裁

 

Contracting parties who wish to have the possibility of resorting to ICC Arbitration in the event of a dispute with their contracting partner should specifically and clearly agree upon ICC Arbitration in their contract or, in the event that no single contractual document exists, in the exchange of correspondence which constitutes the agreement between them. The fact of incorporating one or more Incoterms in a contract or the related correspondence does NOT by itself constitute an agreement to have resort to ICC Arbitration.

簽約方他希望有此可能性尋求國際商會(ICC)仲裁 設若一項爭執和他們簽約方當特別地及明確地同意國際商會(ICC)仲裁在他們的合同中或, 設若著無單一契約單據存在, 於交換連繫中其構成於彼此間協議。 事實上合併一個或多個國貿條規於一份合同中或此相關連繫中 並非由它自己構成一項協議來尋求國際商會(ICC) 仲裁。

The following standard arbitration clause is recommended by ICC: «All disputes arising out of or in connection with the present contract shall be finally settled under the Rules of Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce by one or more arbitrators appointed in accordance with the said Rules.»

以下標準仲裁條目被由國際商會(ICC)推薦: «所有爭執由於或相關現行合同當最後被決定依據國際商會仲裁規則由依前述提述規則指定的一個或多個仲裁人議決»  («All disputes arising out of or in connection with the present contract shall be finally settled under the Rules of Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce by one or more arbitrators appointed in accordance with the said Rules.»)

 

 

 

 

 

EX WORKS (... named place)

到指定地點工廠交貨價 (… 指定地點)

 

« Ex works» means that the seller delivers when he places the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the seller's premises or another named place (i.e. works, factory, warehouse, etc.) not cleared for export and not loaded on any collecting vehicle. This term thus represents the minimum obligation for the seller, and the buyer has to bear all costs and risks involved in taking the goods from the seller's premises However, if the parties wish the seller to be responsible for the loading of the goods on departure and to bear the risks and all the costs of such loading, this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale (Refer to Introduction paragraph 11.) .This term should not be used when the buyer cannot carry out the export formalities directly or indirectly. In such circumstances, the FCA term should be used, provided the seller agrees that he will load at his cost and risk.

«到指定地點工廠交貨價 (Ex works) »意即為此賣主的交付當它放置貨物依買家處置於賣主的營業場所或另一個指名的地方(即工場、工廠、倉庫, 等等。) 並不清關待出口及未裝載在任何收集車上。 這個條件因而代表賣主的最小義務, 及此買家必須負擔所有費用及風險包含從賣主的營業場所接收貨物無論如何, 如果各方希望此賣主發貨時負責貨物裝載和負擔該類風險及所有裝載費用, 此舉當被清楚地藉由增加明確的此行為字詞在銷售合同中 (參見11段介紹。) 此條件當勿被使用當此買主不能直接或間接地完成此出口程序。在這樣情況, 此到指定地方貨交運送人價(FCA) 規條件當被使用, 假如此賣主同意著他將負責裝載費用及風險。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EX WORKS (... named place) 到指定地點工廠交貨價 (… 指定地點)

THE SELLER'S OBLIGATIONS

此賣主的義務

THE BUYER'S OBLIGATIONS

此買主的義務

A1 Provision of goods in conformity with the contract

A1 依此合同供應貨物

The seller must provide the goods and the commercial invoice, or its equivalent electronic message, in conformity with the contract of sale and any other evidence of conformity which may be required by the contract.

此賣主必須提供貨物和商業發票, 或它的等效電子訊息, 與銷售合同一致及任何其它與合同要求一致的證明

B1 Payment of the price

B1 依此價付款

The buyer must pay the price as provided in the contract of sale.

此買家必須支付係如銷售合同預先約定價款。

A2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

A2 執照、授權和管制程序

The seller must render the buyer, at the latter's request, risk and expense, every assistance in obtaining, where applicable, (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14.), any export licence or other official authorisation necessary for the export of the goods.

此外賣主必須回報此買家, 根據後者請求、風險和費用, 任一可得協助, 當可適用, (參見14段介紹.), 為此貨物出口任何出口執照或其它必要的官方授權。

B2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

B2 執照、授權和管制程序

The buyer must obtain at his own risk and expense any export and import licence or other official authorisation and carry out, where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14.) , all customs formalities for the export of the goods.

此買家必須自負風險及費用取得及完成任何出口及進口執照或其它官方授權, 當可適用(參見14 段介紹。) ,為此出口此貨物必要的所有海關管制程序。

A3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

A3 運送和保險合同

А) Contract of carriage

A) 運送合同

No obligation(Refer to Introduction paragraph 10).

沒有義務(參考10段介紹)

b) Contract of insurance

b) 保險合同

No obligation(Refer to Introduction paragraph 10)

沒有義務(參考10段介紹)

B3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

B3 運送和保險合同

a)   Contract of carriage

a) 運送合同

No obligation(Refer to Introduction paragraph 10).

沒有義務(參考10段介紹)

b) Contract of insurance

b) 保險合同

No obligation(Refer to Introduction paragraph 10).

沒有義務(參考10段介紹)

A4 Delivery

A4 交付

The seller must place the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the named place of delivery, not loaded on any collecting vehicle, on the date or within the period agreed or, if no such time is agreed, at the usual time for delivery of such goods. If no specific point has been agreed within the named place, and if there are several points available, the seller may select the point at the place of delivery which best suits his purpose.

此賣主必須依此買家處置放置貨物於指定名交付地方, 無需被裝載在任合收集車上, 在特定日期或在同意期間內或, 如果無該類時間被同意, 以該貨物常態交付時間。如果於指名地方之內無特定已同意地點, 並且如果那兒有好幾個地點可用, 此賣主得選擇最合於他目的交付地方的地點。

B4 Taking delivery \

B4 接受交付

The buyer must take delivery of the goods when they have been delivered in accordance with A4 and A7/B7.

此買家必須接受此貨物的交付當他們已依據A4 A7/B7 完成交付。

А5 Transfer of risks

A5 移動風險

The seller must, subject to the provisions of B5, bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods until such time as they have been delivered in accordance with A4.

此賣主必須, 依據此B5條款, 負擔此貨物損失或損壞的所有風險直到他們已被依據A4完成交付時間為止為止。

 

B5 Transfer of risks

B5 移動風險

The buyer must bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods

此買家必須負擔此貨物損失或損壞的所有風險

• from the time they have been delivered in accordance with A4;and

自他們依據A4完成交付時間起; 並且

• from the agreed date or the expiry date of any period fixed for taking delivery which arise because he fails to give notice in accordance with B7, provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods.

自於此任何決定為接受交付期間此同意的日期或此有效日期起其造成(風險)因為他未能依據B7給予通知, 假設, 無論如何, 著該貨物是完全合適於合同, 也就是清楚地說堆儲或以其它不同方式被確認係如合同貨物。

A6 Division of costs

A6 費用配分

The seller must, subject to the provisions of B6, pay all costs relating to the goods until such time as they have been delivered in accordance with A4. 4.

此賣主必須, 依據此B6條款, 支付相關此貨物的所有費用直到他們依據A4.4完成交付該時間止。

B6 Division of costs

B6 費用配分

The buyer must pay

此買家必須支付

• all costs relating to the goods from the time they have been delivered in accordance with A4; and

•`相關貨物所有費用自他們依據A4.4完成交付時間起; 並且

• any additional costs incurred by failing either to take delivery of the goods when they have been placed at his disposal, or to give appropriate notice in accordance with B7 provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods; and

任何增加的費用肇因於未能二者之一接受交付此貨物當他們已依他的處置放置, 或依據B7預先約定給予適當通知, 無論如何, 此貨物已完全適當於合同, 也就是說, 清楚地堆儲或以其它不同的方式確認係如合同貨物; 並且

• where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10), all duties, taxes and other charges as well as the costs of carrying out customs formalities payable upon export.
The buyer must reimburse all costs and charges incurred by the seller in rendering assistance in accordance with A2.

當可適用(參見10段介紹), 所有關稅, 稅費及其他費用和於出口時應付完成海關管制程序費用。此買家必須償還所有費用和支出肇因於此賣主依據A2給予與協助

A7 Notice to the buyer

A7 通知此買家

The seller must give the buyer sufficient notice as to when and where the goods will be placed at his disposal.

此賣主必須給此買家充足的通知至於何時何地此貨物將依他的的處置被放置。

B7 Notice to the seller

B7 通知此賣主

The buyer must, whenever he is entitled to determine the time within an agreed period and/or the place of taking delivery, give the seller sufficient notice thereof.

此買家必須, 每當他有權決定此於一個同意的期間內的時間及/或接受交付地方, 由是給予此賣主充足的通知。

A8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

A8 交付證明、運送單據或等效電子訊息No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10)

沒有義務(參見10段介紹)

 

B8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

B8 交付證明、運送單據或等效電子訊息The buyer must provide the seller with appropriate evidence of having taken delivery.

此買家必須提供此賣主已完成交付的適當的證據。

A9 Checking - packaging - marking

A9 檢查- 包裝- 標號

The seller must pay the costs of those checking operations (such as checking quality, measuring, weighing, counting) which are necessary for the purpose of placing the goods at the buyer's disposal. The seller must provide at his own expense packaging (unless it is usual for the particular trade to make the goods of the contract description available unpacked) which is required for the transport of the goods, to the extent that the circumstances relating to the transport (for example modalities, destination) are made known to the seller before the contract of sale is concluded. Packaging is to be marked appropriately.

此賣主必須付費於該檢查作業(諸如檢查品質, 丈量, 磅重, 計數)其依此買主的處置放置貨務目的是必需的。 此賣家必需自費提供包裝(除非它是常態於特別貿易致使此合同品名貨物可適用無包裝) 其被要求於運送此貨物, 在某種程度上其相關運送環境(例如形式, 目的地) 是於銷售合同議決前已照會此賣主。包裝將適當地被標記。

 

B9 Inspection of goods

B9 貨物的檢查

 

The buyer must pay the costs of any pre-shipment inspection, including inspection mandated by the authorities of the country of export.

此買家必須支付任何裝船前檢查的費用, 包括檢查被由出口國當局強制。

A10 Other obligations

A10 其它義務

The seller must render the buyer at the latter's request, risk and expense, every assistance in obtaining any documents or equivalent electronic messages issued or transmitted in the country of delivery and/or of origin which the buyer may require for the export and/or import of the goods and, where necessary, for their transit through any country. The seller must provide the buyer, upon request, with the necessary information for procuring insurance.

此賣主必須通報此買家如後要求, 風險和費用, 每一協助以取得任何單據或等效電子訊息於交付及/或原產國被簽發或被傳送其此買家得要求為此貨物出口及/或進口及, 當必要時, 為它們過境任何國家。此賣主必須提供此此買家, 根據要求, 以取得保險必要的資訊。

 

B10 Other obligations

B10 其它義務

The buyer must pay all costs and charges incurred in obtaining the documents or equivalent electronic messages mentioned in A10 and reimburse those incurred by the seller in rendering his assistance in accordance therewith.

此買家必須支付所有費用和支出肇因於取得在A10中提及的單據或等效電子訊息和償還那些由此賣主招致隨後依據給予協助(的費用)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FCA/ FREE CARRIER(... named place)
到指定地方貨交運送人價 (... 指定地方)

 

«Free Carrier» means that the seller delivers the goods, cleared for export, to the carrier nominated by the buyer at the named place. It should be noted that the chosen place of delivery has an impact on the obligations of loading and unloading the goods at that place. If delivery occurs at the seller's premises, the seller is responsible for loading. If delivery occurs at any other place, the seller is not responsible for unloading. This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport, including multimodal transport. «Carrier» means any person who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of transport by rail, road, air, sea, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes. If the buyer nominates a person other than a carrier to receive the goods, the seller is deemed to have fulfilled his obligation to deliver the goods when they are delivered to that person.

«到指定地方貨交運送人價(Free Carrier)»意味著此賣主交付貨物, 清關待出口, 給由此買家指名的地方之指定的運送人。它當被注意的為此所選定的交貨地方有一項衝突於該地方裝載和卸載貨物的義務。如果交付發生在賣主的營業場所, 此賣主有責任予裝載。如果交付發生在其他地方, 賣主無責任予卸載。 這條件得被使用不論(何種)運送模式, 包括複式運送。 «運送人(Carrier)» 意味任何人他, 在運送合同中, 承擔履行或取得履行以鐵路, 公路, 空運, 海運, 內陸水路運輸或諸類模式組合。如果此買家指定一員其非一運送人來收取貨物, 此賣主將被視為已履行了他的交付貨物義務當他們被交付給該員。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FCA/ FREE CARRIER(... named place) 到指定地方貨交運送人價 (... 指定地方)

THE SELLER'S OBLIGATIONS

此賣主的義務

THE BUYER'S OBLIGATIONS

此買主的義務

A1 Provision of goods in conformity with the contract

A1依此合同供應貨物

The seller must provide the goods and the commercial invoice, or its equivalent electronic message, in conformity with the contract of sale and any other evidence of conformity which may be required by the contract.

此賣主必須提供貨物和商業發票, 或它的等效電子訊息, 與銷售合同一致及任何其它與合同要求一致的證明

B1 Payment of the price

B1依此價付款

The buyer must pay the price as provided in the contract of sale.

此買家必須支付係如銷售合同預先約定價款。

A2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

A2執照、授權和管制程序

The seller must obtain at his own risk and expense any export licence or other official authorisation and carry out, where applicable, (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), all customs formalities necessary for the export of the goods.

此賣主必須自負風險及費用取得及完成任何出口執照或其它官方授權, 當可適用(參見14 段介紹。) ,為此出口此貨物必要的所有海關管制程序。

B2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

B2執照、授權和管制程序

The buyer must obtain at his own risk and expense any import licence or other official authorisation and carry out, where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14) , all customs formalities for the import of the goods and for their transit through any country.

此買家必須自負風險及費用取得及完成任何進口執照或其它官方授權, 當可適用(參見14 段介紹。) ,為此進口此貨物及為它們過境任何國家時的所有海關管制程序。

A3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

A3運送和保險合同

a) Contract of carriage

a) 運送合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10 ).

沒有義務(參考10段介紹)

However, if requested by the buyer or if it is commercial practice and the buyer does not give an instruction to the contrary in due time, the seller may contract for carriage on usual terms at the buyer's risk and expense. In either case, the seller may decline to make the contract and, if he does, shall promptly notify the buyer accordingly.

無論如何, 如果被由此買家要求或如它是商業實務並且此買家未即時給予反面指示, 此賣主得簽約待運送以常態條件以此買家的風險及付費。 在每一情況中, 此賣主得拒絕簽此合同及, 如他果如此, 當隨後立刻通知買家。

b) Contract of insurance

b) 保險合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10 )

沒有義務(參考10段介紹)

B3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

B3運送和保險合同

a) Contract of carriage

a) 運送合同

The buyer must contract at his own expense for the carriage of the goods from the named place, except when the contract of carriage is made by the seller as provided for in A3 a).

此買家必須自費簽約為運送此貨物自此指名地方, 除當此運送合同是由此賣主所為係如A3 a)所預先約定。

b) Contract of insurance

b) 保險合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10 ).

沒有義務(參考10段介紹)

 

A4 Delivery

A4 交付

The seller must deliver the goods to the carrier or another person nominated by the buyer, or chosen by the seller in accordance with A3 a), at the named place on the date or within the period agreed for delivery. Delivery is completed;

此賣主必須交付貨物給運送人或其他由此買主指定人員, 或由賣主依據A3 a)選擇, 在此指名地方在特定日期或在同意期間內待交付。交付被完成;

a) If the named place is the seller's premises, when the goods have been loaded on the means of transport provided by the carrier nominated by the buyer or another person acting on his behalf.

a) 如果此指名地方是賣主的營業場所, 當此貨物已被裝載在由此買主或擔任代理他的其他人所指定的此運送人所提供的運送工具上。

b) If the named place is anywhere other than a), when the goods are placed at the disposal of the carrier or another person nominated by the buyer, or chosen by the seller in accordance with A3 a) on the seller's means of transport not unloaded.

b) 如果此指名地方是除a)外之其它任何地方, 當此貨物被放置在此運送人或由此買家所指名的其它人所處置 (的地方), 或依據A3 a)被由此賣主選擇於此賣方的運送工具上無需卸載。

If no specific point has been agreed within the named place, and if there are several points available, the seller may select the point at the place of delivery which best suits his purpose.

如果於指名的地方之內無特定已同意地點, 並且如果那而有好幾個地點可用, 此賣主得選擇最合於他目的交付地方的地點。

Failing precise instructions from the buyer, the seller may deliver the goods for carriage in such a manner as the transport mode and/or the quantity and/or nature of the goods may require.

此買家未能精確指示, 此賣主得要求得交付此貨物待運以該一種方式為此運送模式及/或此數量及/或貨物本質。

B4 Taking delivery

B4接受交付

The buyer must take delivery of the goods when they have been delivered in accordance with A4.

此買家必須接受此貨物的交付當他們已依據A4 完成交付。

 

A5 Transfer of risks

A5 移動風險

The seller must, subject to the provisions of B5, bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods until such time as they have been delivered in accordance with A4.

此賣主必須, 依據此B5條款, 負擔此貨物損失或損壞的所有風險直到他們已被依據A4完成交付時間為止。

B5 Transfer of risks

B5 移動風險

The buyer must bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods

此買家必須負擔此貨物損失或損壞的所有風險

•from the time they have been delivered in accordance with A4;and

自他們依據A4完成交付時間起; 並且

• from the agreed date or the expiry date of any agreed period for delivery which arise either because he fails to nominate the carrier or another person in accordance with A4, or because the carrier or the party nominated by the buyer fails to take the goods into his charge at the agreed time, or because the buyer fails to give appropriate notice in accordance with B7, provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods.

自於此任何同意為交付期間此同意的日期或此有效日期起其造成二者之一(風險)因為他未能依據A4指定此運送人或其他人, 或因為此買主未能依據B7給予合適通知, 假設, 無論如何, 著該貨物是完全合適於合同, 也就是清楚地說堆儲或以其它不同方式被確認係如合同貨物。

A6 Division of costs

A6 費用配分

The seller must, subject to the provisions of B6, pay

此賣主必須, 依據此B6條款, 支付

• all costs relating to the goods until such time as they have been delivered in accordance with A4; and

相關此貨物的所有費用直到他們依據A4完成交付該時間為止;

• where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14 ), the costs of customs formalities as well as all duties, taxes, and other charges payable upon export.

當可適用(參見14段介紹), 海關管制程序費用及所有關稅, 稅費及於出口其他應付費用。

B6 Division of costs

B6 費用配分

The buyer must pay

此買家必須支付

• all costs relating to the goods from the time they have been delivered in accordance with A4; and

•`相關貨物所有費用自他們依據A4.4完成交付時間起; 並且

• any additional costs incurred, either because he fails to nominate the carrier or another person in accordance with A4 or because the party nominated by the buyer fails to take the goods into his charge at the agreed time, or because he has failed to give appropriate notice in accordance with B7, provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods; and

任何增加的費用肇因, 二者之一因為他未能依據A4 指定此運送人或其它人或 因為由此買家指定各方未能於同意時間接受此貨物為他的控管, 或因為他已未能依據B7給予合適通知, 假設, 無論如何, 著此貨物已完全適當於合同, 也就是說, 清楚地堆儲或其它不同的確認係如合同貨物; 並且

• where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14 ) , all duties, taxes and other charges as well as the costs of carrying out customs formalities payable upon import of the goods and for their transit through any country.

當可適用(參見14段介紹), 所有關稅, 稅費及其他費用和此支付此貨物進口及它們過境任何國家時完成海關管制程序費用。

A7 Notice to the buyer

A7 通知此買家

The seller must give the buyer sufficient notice that the goods have been delivered in accordance with A4. Should the carrier fail to take delivery in accordance with A4 at the time agreed, the seller must notify the buyer accordingly.

此賣主必須給此買家充足的通知當此貨物已依據A4完成交付。當此運送人未能依據A4於同意時間接受交付, 此賣主必須隨後通知買家。

B7 Notice to the seller

B7 通知此賣主

The buyer must give the seller sufficient notice of the name of the party designated in A4 and, where necessary, specify the mode of transport, as well as the date or period for delivering the goods to him and, as the case may be, the point within the place where the goods should be delivered to that party.

此買家必須給此賣主充足的通知於A4中的指派各方的名呼和, 當必要時, 指定此運送模式, 及此日期或期間為交付此貨物給他及, 如此情況可能, 此地方內的地點那兒此貨物當被交付給該方。

A8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

A8 交付證明、運送單據或等效電子訊息

The seller must provide the buyer at the seller's expense with the usual proof of delivery of the goods in accordance with A4.

此賣主必須提供此買家以此賣主的付費依據A4的交付貨物之常態證明。

Unless the document referred to in the preceding paragraph is the transport document, the seller must render the buyer at the latter's request, risk and expense, every assistance in obtaining a transport document for the contract of carriage (for example a negotiable bill of lading, a non-negotiable sea waybill, an inland waterway document, an air waybill, a railway consignment note, a road consignment note, or a multimodal transport document).

除非此在前段中被言及的單據是指定的運送單據, 否則此賣主必須通報此買家根據後者請求,風險和費用, 每一協助以獲得一份運送單據為運送合同 (例如一份可轉讓的提單, 一份不可轉讓的海運貨單, 一份內陸水路單據, 一份空運貨單, 一張鐵路發貨單, 一張公路發貨單, 或一份複式運送單據)

When the seller and the buyer have agreed to communicate electronically, the document referred to in the preceding paragraph may be replaced by an equivalent electronic data interchange (EDI) message.

當此賣主和此買家已同意電子通信, 此在前段中被言及的單據得被由一份等效電子交換訊息(EDI)替換。

B8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

B8 交付證明、運送單據或等效電子訊息

The buyer must accept the proof of delivery in accordance with A8.

此買家必須依據A8接受此交付證明。

 

A9 Checking - packaging - marking

A9 檢查- 包裝- 標號

The seller must pay the costs of those checking operations (such as checking quality, measuring, weighing, counting) which are necessary for the purpose of delivering the goods in accordance with A4.

此賣主必須付費於這些檢查作業(諸如檢查品質, 丈量, 磅重, 計數) 其依據A4為此交付此貨物目的是必需的。

The seller must provide at his own expense packaging (unless it is usual for the particular trade to send the goods of the contract description unpacked) which is required for the transport of the goods, to the extent that the circumstances relating to the transport (for example modalities, destination) are made known to the seller before the contract of sale is concluded. Packaging is to be marked appropriately.

此賣家必需自費提供包裝(除非它是常態於特別貿易送交此合同品名貨物無包裝) 其被要求於運送此貨物, 在某種程度上其相關運送環境(例如形式, 目的地) 是於銷售合同議決前已照會賣主。包裝將適當地被標記。

B9 Inspection of goods

B9 貨物的檢查

The buyer must pay the costs of any pre-shipment inspection except when such inspection is mandated by the authorities of the country of export.

此買家必須支付任何裝船前檢查的費用, 除當該檢查是被由出口國當局強制。

 

A10 Other obligations

A10 其它義務

The seller must render the buyer at the latter's request, risk and expense, every assistance in obtaining any documents or equivalent electronic messages (other than those mentioned in A8) issued or transmitted in the country of delivery and/or of origin which the buyer may require for the import of the goods and, where necessary, for their transit through any country. The seller must provide the buyer, upon request, with the necessary information for procuring insurance.

此賣主必須通報此買家如後要求, 風險和費用, 每一協助以取得任何單據或等效電子訊息(除這些在A8中所提及外) 於交付及/或原產國被簽發或被傳送其此買家得要求為此貨物進口及, 當必要時, 為它們過境任何國家。此賣主必須提供此買家, 根據要求, 以取得保險必要的資訊。

B10 Other obligations

B10 其它義務

The buyer must pay all costs and charges incurred in obtaining the documents or equivalent electronic messages mentioned in A10 and reimburse those incurred by the seller in rendering his assistance in accordance therewith and in contracting for carriage in accordance with A3 a).

此買家必須支付所有費用和支出肇因於取得在A10提及的單據或等效電子訊息和償還那些由此賣主招致隨後依據給予協助及依據A3 a)簽約待運(的費用)

The buyer must give the seller appropriate instructions whenever the seller's assistance in contracting for carriage is required in accordance with A3 a).

此買家被要求必須給此賣主適當的指示依據A3 a)每當(需要)此賣主的協助簽約待運送。

 

 

 

 

 

 

FAS / FREE ALONGSIDE SHIP(... named port of shipment)

到指定裝運港船邊交貨價(... 指定裝運港)

 

«Free Alongside Ship» means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the vessel at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that moment. The FAS term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. THIS IS A REVERSAL FROM PREVIOUS INCOTERMS VERSIONS WHICH REQUIRED THE BUYER TO ARRANGE FOR EXPORT CLEARANCE. However, if the parties wish the buyer to clear the goods for export, this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale. This term can be used only for sea or inland waterway transport.

«到指定裝運港船邊交貨價(Free Alongside Ship)»意味著此賣主交付當此貨物被放置在指名裝運港口的船邊旁。這意味著此買家自此刻起必須負擔對此貨物所有費用及損失或損壞風險。此到指定裝運港船邊交貨價(FAS)條件要求此賣主要清關此貨物待出口。這是一項逆轉從以前國貿條規版本其要求此買家要安排出口清關。無論如何, 如果各方希望此買主清關此貨物待出口, 這項當被做的清楚藉由增加明確字詞於這項銷售合同中生效。這項條件僅可能被使用於海運或內陸水路運送。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FAS / FREE ALONGSIDE SHIP(.. named port of shipment) 到指定裝運港船邊交貨價(...指定裝運港) .

THE SELLER'S OBLIGATIONS

此賣主的義務

THE BUYER'S OBLIGATIONS

此買主的義務

A1 Provision of goods in conformity with the contract

A1依此合同供應貨物

The seller must provide the goods and the commercial invoice, or its equivalent electronic message, in conformity with the contract of sale and any other evidence of conformity which may be required by the contract.

此賣主必須提供貨物和商業發票, 或它的等效電子訊息, 與銷售合同一致及任何其它與合同要求一致的證明。

B1 Payment of the price

B1依此價付款

The buyer must pay the price as provided in the contract of sale.

此買家必須支付係如銷售合同預先約定價款。

A2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

A2執照、授權和管制程序

The seller must obtain at his own risk and expense any export licence or other official authorisation and carry out, where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14.), all customs formalities necessary for the export of the goods.

此賣主必須自負風險及費用取得及完成任何出口執照或其它官方授權, 當可適用(參見14 段介紹。) ,為此出口此貨物必要的所有海關管制程序。

B2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

B2執照、授權和管制程序

The buyer must obtain at his own risk and expense any import licence or other official authorisation and carry out, where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), all customs formalities for the import of the goods and for their transit through any country.

此買家必須自負風險及費用取得及完成任何進口執照或其它官方授權, 當可適用(參見14 段介紹。) ,為此進口此貨物及為它們過境任何國家的所有海關管制程序。

A3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

A3運送和保險合同

a)      Contract of carriage

a) 運送合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10).

沒有義務(參考10段介紹)

b) Contract of insurance
b) 保險合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10).

沒有義務(參考10段介紹)

B3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

B3運送和保險合同

a) Contract of carriage

a) 運送合同

The buyer must contract at his own expense for the carriage of the goods from the named port of shipment.

此買家必須自費簽約自此指名裝運港口為此貨物運送。

b) Contract of insurance

b) 保險合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10).

沒有義務(參考10段介紹)

A4 Delivery

A4 交付

The seller must place the goods alongside the vessel nominated by the buyer at the loading place named by the buyer at the named port of shipment on the date or within the agreed period and in the manner customary at the port.

此賣主必放置此貨物於在指名裝運港由此買主指名裝載地方()由此買主指定船舶船邊旁在特定日期或在同意期間內及以在此特定港口慣常的方式。

B4 Taking delivery

B4接受交付

The buyer must take delivery of the goods when they have been delivered in accordance with A4

此買家必須接受此貨物的交付當他們已依據A4 完成交付。

A5 Transfer of risks

A5 移動風險

The seller must, subject to the provisions of B5, bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods until such time as they have been delivered in accordance with A4.

此賣主必須, 依據此B5條款, 負擔對此貨物損失或損壞的所有風險直到他們已被依據A4完成交付時間為止。

 

B5 Transfer of risks

B5 移動風險

The buyer must bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods

此買家必須負擔此貨物損失或損壞的所有風險

• from the time they have been delivered in accordance with A4; and

自他們依據A4完成交付時間起; 並且

• from the agreed date or the expiry date of the agreed period for delivery which arise because he fails to give notice in accordance with B7, or because the vessel nominated by him fails to arrive on time, or is unable to take the goods, or closes for cargo earlier than the time notified in accordance with B7, provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods.

自於此同意為交付期間此同意的日期或此有效日期起其造成因為他未能依據B7給予通知, 或因為此由他所指定的船舶未能到達準時, 或是未能接受此貨物, 或貨物結關早於依據B7被通知時間, 假設, 無論如何, 著該貨物是完全合適於合同, 也就是說, 清楚地堆儲或以其它不同方式被確認係如合同貨物。

A6 Division of costs

A6費用配分

The seller must, subject to the provisions of B6, pay

此賣主必須, 依據此B6條款, 支付

• all costs relating to the goods until such time as they have been delivered in accordance with A4; and

相關此貨物的所有費用直到他們依據A4完成交付該時間為止;

• where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), the costs of customs formalities as well as all duties, taxes, and other charges payable upon export.

當可適用(參見14段介紹), 海關管制程序費用及所有關稅, 稅費及於出口其他應付費用。

B6 Division of costs

B6 費用配分

The buyer must pay

此買家必須支付

• all costs relating to the goods from the time they have been delivered in accordance with A4; and

•`相關貨物所有費用自他們依據A4.4完成交付時間起; 並且

• any additional costs incurred, either because the vessel nominated by him has failed to arrive on time, or is unable to take the goods, or closes for cargo earlier than the time notified in accordance with B7, or because the buyer has failed to give appropriate notice in accordance with B7 provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods; and

任何增加的費用肇因, 二者之一因為由他指定船舶未能到達準時, 或是未能接受此貨物, 或貨物結關早於依據B7被通知時間, 或因為此買家已未能依據B7給予合適通知, 假設,  無論如何, 著此貨物已完全適當於合同, 也就是說, 清楚地堆儲或其它不同的確認係如合同貨物; 並且

• where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), all duties, taxes and other charges as well as the costs of carrying out customs formalities payable upon import of the goods and for their transit through any country.

當可適用(參見14段介紹), 所有關稅, 稅費及其他費用和此支付於進口貨物及為它們過境任何國家時完成海關管制程序費用。

A7 Notice to the buyer

A7 通知此買家

The seller must give the buyer sufficient notice that the goods have been delivered alongside the nominated vessel.

此賣主必須給此買家充足的通知當此貨物已完成交付於此指定船舶邊旁。

B7 Notice to the seller

B7 通知此賣主

The buyer must give the seller sufficient notice of the vessel name, loading point and required delivery time.

此賣主必須給此買家充足的通知此船舶名稱、裝運地點及要求的交付時間。

A8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

A8 交付證明、運送單據或等效電子訊息

The seller must provide the buyer at the seller's expense with the usual proof of delivery of the goods in accordance with A4.

此賣主必須提供此買家以此賣主的付費依據A4的交付貨物之常態證明。

Unless the document referred to in the preceding paragraph is the transport document, the seller must render the buyer at the latter's request, risk and expense, every assistance in obtaining a transport document (for example a negotiable bill of lading, a non-negotiable sea waybill, an inland waterway document).

除非此在前段中被言及的單據是指定的運送單據, 否則此賣主必須通報此買家根據後者請求, 風險和費用, 每一協助以獲得一份運送單據 (例如一份可轉讓的提單, 一份不可轉讓的海運貨單、一份內陸水路單據)

When the seller and the buyer have agreed to communicate electronically, the document referred to in the preceding paragraphs may be replaced by an equivalent electronic data interchange (EDI) message.

當此賣主和此買家已同意電子通信, 此在前段中被言及的單據得被由一份等效電子交換訊息(EDI)替換。

B8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

B8 交付證明、運送單據或等效電子訊息

The buyer must accept the proof of delivery in accordance with A8.

此買家必須依據A8接受此交付證明。

 

A9 Checking - packaging - marking

A9 檢查- 包裝- 標號

The seller must pay the costs of those checking operations (such as checking quality, measuring, weighing, counting) which are necessary for the purpose of delivering the goods in accordance with A4.

此賣主必須付費於這些檢查作業(諸如檢查品質, 丈量, 磅重, 計數) 其依據A4為此交付此貨物目的是必需的。

The seller must provide at his own expense packaging (unless it is usual for the particular trade to ship the goods of the contract description unpacked) which is required for the transport of the goods, to the extent that the circumstances relating to the transport (for example modalities, destination) are made known to the seller before the contract of sale is concluded. Packaging is to be marked appropriately.

此賣家必需自費提供包裝(除非它是常態於特別貿易裝運此合同品名貨物無包裝) 其被要求於運送此貨物, 在某種程度上其相關運送環境(例如形式, 目的地) 是於銷售合同議決前已照會賣主。包裝將適當地被標記。

B9 Inspection of goods

B9 貨物的檢查

The buyer must pay the costs of any pre-shipment inspection, except when such inspection is mandated by the authorities of the country of export.

此買家必須支付任何裝船前檢查的費用, 除當該檢查是被由出口國當局強制。

 

A10 Other obligations

A10 其它義務

The seller must render the buyer at the latter's request, risk and expense, every assistance in obtaining any documents or equivalent electronic messages (other than those mentioned in A8) issued or transmitted in the country of shipment and/or of origin which the buyer may require for the import of the goods and, where necessary, for their transit through any country. The seller must provide the buyer, upon request, with the necessary information for procuring insurance.

此賣主必須通報此買家如後要求, 風險和費用, 每一協助以取得任何單據或等效電子訊息(除這些在A8所提及外) 於裝運及/或原產國被簽發或被傳送其此買家得要求為此貨物進口及, 當必要時, 為它們過境任何國家。此賣主必須提供此買家, 根據要求, 以取得保險必要的資訊。

B10 Other obligations

B10  其它義務

The buyer must pay all costs and charges incurred in obtaining the documents or equivalent electronic messages mentioned in A10 and reimburse those incurred by the seller in rendering his assistance in accordance therewith.

此買家必須支付所有費用和支出肇因於取得在A10中提及的單據或等效電子訊息和償還那些肇因於由此賣主依據隨後給與它的協助。

 

FOB / FREE ON BOARD(... named port of shipment)

到指定裝運港船上交貨價 (...指定裝運港)
 

« Free on Board» means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship's rail at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that point. The FOB term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term can be used only for sea or inland waterway transport. If the parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship's rail, the FCA term should be used.

«到指定裝運港船上交貨價(Free on Board)»意味著此賣主交付當此貨物在指名為裝運港口通過此船舶的船弦。這意味著此買家必須負擔自該地點起對此貨物所有費用及損失或損壞風險。此到指定裝運港船上交貨價(FOB)條件要求此賣主清關此貨物待出口。這項條件僅可能被使用於海運或內陸水路運送。如果各方無意欲交付此貨物通過此船舶的船弦, 此到指定地方貨交運送人價(FCA) 條件當被使用。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FOB / FREE ON BOARD(... named port of shipment)到指定裝運港船上交貨價 (...指定裝運港)

THE SELLER'S OBLIGATIONS

此賣主的義務

THE BUYER'S OBLIGATIONS

此買主的義務

A1 Provision of goods in conformity with the contract

A1依此合同供應貨物

The seller must provide the goods and the commercial invoice, or its equivalent electronic message, in conformity with the contract of sale and any other evidence of conformity which may be required by the contract.

此賣主必須提供貨物和商業發票, 或它的等效電子訊息, 與銷售合同一致及任何其它與合同要求一致的證明。

B1 Payment of the price

B1依此價付款

The buyer must pay the price as provided in the contract of sale.

此買家必須支付係如銷售合同預先約定價款。

A2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

A2執照、授權和管制程序

The seller must obtain at his own risk and expense any export licence or other official authorisation and carry out, where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14) , all customs formalities necessary for the export of the goods.

此賣主必須自負風險及費用取得及完成任何出口執照或其它官方授權, 當可適用(參見14 段介紹。) ,為此出口此貨物必要的所有海關管制程序。

B2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

B2執照、授權和管制程序

The buyer must obtain at his own risk and expense any import licence or other official authorisation and carry out, where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), all customs formalities for the import of the goods and, where necessary, for their transit through any country.

此買家必須自負風險及費用取得及完成任何進口執照或其它官方授權, 當可適用(參見14 段介紹。) ,為此進口此貨物及, 當必要時, 為它們過境任何國家的所有海關管制程序。

A3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

A3運送和保險合同

a) Contract of carriage

a) 運送合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10)

沒有義務(參考10段介紹)

b) Contract of insurance

b) 保險合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10)

沒有義務(參考10段介紹)

 

B3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

B3運送和保險合同

a)      Contract of carriage

a) 運送合同

The buyer must contract at his own expense for the carriage of the goods from the named port of shipment.

此買家必須自費簽約自此指名裝運港口為此貨物運送。

b) Contract of insurance

b) 保險合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10).

沒有義務(參考10段介紹)

A4 Delivery

A4 交付

The seller must deliver the goods on the date or within the agreed period at the named port of shipment and in the manner customary at the port on board the vessel nominated by the buyer.

此賣主必須交付此貨物在特定日期或在同意期間內在此指名裝運港口及以在此特定港口慣常的方式裝載在由此買家指定船舶上。

B4 Taking delivery

B4接受交付

The buyer must take delivery of the goods when they have been delivered in accordance with A4.

此買家必須接受此貨物的交付當他們已依據A4 完成交付。

 

A5 Transfer of risks

A5 移動風險

The seller must, subject to the provisions of B5, bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods until such time as they have passed the ship's rail at the named port of shipment.

此賣主必須, 依據此B5條款, 負擔對此貨物的所有損失或損壞風險直到他們已通過在此指名裝運港口通過此船舶的船弦時間為止。

B5 Transfer of risks

B5 移動風險

The buyer must bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods

此買家必須負擔此貨物損失或損壞的所有風險

• from the time they have passed the ship's rail at the named port of shipment; and

從此刻它們已通過此在指名裝運港口船舶的船弦起; 並且

• from the agreed date or the expiry date of the agreed period for delivery which arise because he fails to give notice in accordance with B7, or because the vessel nominated by him fails to arrive on time, or is unable to take the goods, or closes for cargo earlier than the time notified in accordance with B7, provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods.

自於此同意為交付期間此同意的日期或此有效日期起其造成因為他未能依據B7給予通知, 或因為此由他所指定的船舶未能到達準時, 或是未能接受此貨物, 或貨物結關早於依據B7被通知時間, 假設, 無論如何, 著該貨物是完全合適於合同, 也就是說, 清楚地堆儲或以其它不同方式被確認係如合同貨物。

A6 Division of costs

A6 費用配分

The seller must, subject to the provisions of B6, pay

此賣主必須, 依據此B6條款, 支付

• all costs relating to the goods until such time as they have passed the ship's rail at the named port of shipment; and

相關此貨物的所有費用直到他們已通過在此指名裝運港口此船舶的船弦時間為止; 並且

• where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14) , the costs of customs formalities necessary for export as well as all duties, taxes and other charges payable upon export.

當可適用(參見14段介紹), 為出口必需的海關管制程序費用及所有關稅, 稅費及於出口其他應付費用。

 

B6 Division of costs

B6 費用配分

The buyer must pay

此買家必須支付

• all costs relating to the goods from the time they have passed the ship's rail at the named port of shipment; and

相關貨物所有費用自此刻它們已通過此在指名裝運港口船舶的船弦起; 並且

• any additional costs incurred, either because the vessel nominated by him fails to arrive on time, or is unable to take the goods, or closes for cargo earlier than the time notified in accordance with B7, or because the buyer has failed to give appropriate notice in accordance with B7, provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods; and

任何增加的費用肇因, 二者之一因為由他指定船舶未能到達準時, 或是未能接受此貨物, 或貨物結關早於依據B7被通知時間, 或因為此買家已未能依據B7給予合適通知, 假設,  無論如何, 著此貨物已完全適當於合同, 也就是說, 清楚地堆儲或其它不同的確認係如合同貨物; 並且

• where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), all duties, taxes and other charges as well as the costs of carrying out customs formalities payable upon import of the goods and for their transit through any country.

當可適用(參見14段介紹), 所有關稅, 稅費及其他費用和此支付於進口此貨物及為它們過境任何國家時完成海關管制程序費用。

A7 Notice to the buyer

A7 通知此買家

The seller must give the buyer sufficient notice that the goods have been delivered in accordance with A4.

此賣主必須給此買家充足的通知當此貨物已依據A4完成交付。

B7 Notice to the seller

B7 通知此賣主

The buyer must give the seller sufficient notice of the vessel name, loading point and required delivery time.

此賣主必須給此買家充足的通知此船舶名稱、裝運地點及要求的交付時間。

A8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

A8 交付證明、運送單據或等效電子訊息

The seller must provide the buyer at the seller's expense with the usual proof of delivery in accordance with A4.

此賣主必須提供此買家以此賣主的付費依據A4的交付貨物之常態證明。

Unless the document referred to in the preceding paragraph is the transport document, the seller must render the buyer, at the latter's request, risk and expense, every assistance in obtaining a transport document for the contract of carriage (for example, a negotiable bill of lading, a non-negotiable sea waybill, an inland waterway document, or a multimodal transport document).

除非此在前段中被言及的單據是指定的運送單據, 否則此賣主必須通報此買家, 根據後者請求, 風險和費用, 每一協助以獲得一份運送單據為運送合同 (例如, 一份可轉讓的提單, 一份不可轉讓的海運貨單、一份內陸水路單據, 或一份複式運送單據)

Where the seller and the buyer have agreed to communicate electronically, the document referred to in the preceding paragraph may be replaced by an equivalent electronic data interchange (EDI) message.

當此賣主和此買家已同意電子通信, 此在前段中被言及的單據得被由一份等效電子交換訊息(EDI)替換。

B8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

B8 交付證明、運送單據或等效電子訊息

The buyer must accept the proof of delivery in accordance with A8.

此買家必須依據A8接受此交付證明。

 

A9 Checking - packaging - marking

A9 檢查- 包裝- 標號

The seller must pay the costs of those checking operations (such as checking quality, measuring, weighing, counting) which are necessary for the purpose of delivering the goods in accordance with A4.

此賣主必須付費於這些檢查作業(諸如檢查品質, 丈量, 磅重, 計數) 其依據A4為此交付此貨物目的是所必需的。

The seller must provide at his own expense packaging (unless it is usual for the particular trade to ship the goods of the contract description unpacked) which is required for the transport of the goods, to the extent that the circumstances relating to the transport (for example modalities, destination) are made known to the seller before the contract of sale is concluded. Packaging is to be marked appropriately.

此賣家必需自費提供包裝(除非它是常態於特別貿易裝運此合同品名貨物無包裝) 其被要求於運送此貨物, 在某種程度上其相關運送環境(例如形式, 目的地) 是於銷售合同議決前已照會賣主。包裝將適當地被標記。

B9 Inspection of goods

B9 貨物檢查

The buyer must pay the costs of any pre-shipment inspection except when such inspection is mandated by the authorities of the country of export.

此買家必須支付任何裝船前檢查的費用, 除當該檢查是由出口國當局強制。

 

A10 Other obligations

A10 其它義務

The seller must render the buyer at the latter's request, risk and expense, every assistance in obtaining any documents or equivalent electronic messages (other than those mentioned in A8) issued or transmitted in the country of shipment and/or of origin which the buyer may require for the import of the goods and, where necessary, for their transit through any country. The seller must provide the buyer, upon request, with the necessary information for procuring insurance.

此賣主必須通報此買家如後要求、風險和費用, 每一協助以取得任何單據或等效電子訊息(除這些在A8所提及外) 於裝運及/或原產國被簽發或被傳送其此買家得要求為此貨物進口及, 當必要時, 為它們過境任何國家。此賣主必須提供此買家, 根據要求, 以取得保險必要的資訊。

B10 Other obligations

B10  其它義務

The buyer must pay all costs and charges incurred in obtaining the documents or equivalent electronic messages mentioned in A10 and reimburse those incurred by the seller in rendering his assistance in accordance therewith.

此買家必須支付所有費用和支出肇因於取得在A10中提及的單據或等效電子訊息和償還那些肇因於由此賣主依據隨後給與它的協助。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CFR / COST AND FREIGHT (... named port of destination)

到指定目的地港運費含內價(... 指定目的港)

 

«Cost and Freight» means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment. The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination BUT the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time of delivery, are transferred from the seller to the buyer. The CFR term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term can be used only for sea and inland waterway transport. If the parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship's rail, the CPT term should be used.

«到指定目的地港運費含內價(Cost and Freight)»意味著此賣主交付當此貨物通過在裝運港口中的船舶的船弦。此賣主必須支付必要的費用和運費以帶送此貨物到此指名目的地港口但是此貨物的損失或損壞風險, 及任何附加的費用由因事情發生在交付之後, 是被從此賣主移動給此買家。此到指定目的地港運費含內價(CFR)條件要求此賣主要清關此貨物待出口。 此條件能被使用僅於海運及內陸水路運送。如果各方無意欲交付此貨物跨越此船舶的船弦, 此到指定地方運費付訖價(CPT)條件當被使用。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CFR / COST AND FREIGHT (. named port of destination)到指定目的地港運費含內價(..指定目的港)

THE SELLER'S OBLIGATIONS

此賣主的義務

THE BUYER'S OBLIGATIONS

此買主的義務

A1 Provision of goods in conformity with the contract

A1依此合同供應貨物

The seller must provide the goods and the commercial invoice, or its equivalent electronic message, in conformity with the contract of sale and any other evidence of conformity which may be required by the contract.

此賣主必須提供貨物和商業發票, 或它的等效電子訊息, 與銷售合同一致及任何其它與合同要求一致的證明。

B1 Payment of the price

B1依此價付款

The buyer must pay the price as provided in the contract of sale.

此買家必須支付係如銷售合同預先約定價款。

A2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

A2執照、授權和管制程序

The seller must obtain at his own risk and expense any export licence or other official authorisation and carry out, where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14) , all customs formalities necessary for the export of the goods.

此賣主必須自負風險及費用取得及完成任何出口執照或其它官方授權, 當可適用(參見14 段介紹。) ,為此出口此貨物必要的所有海關管制程序。

B2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

B2執照、授權和管制程序

The buyer must obtain at his own risk and expense any import licence or other official authorisation and carry out, where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), all customs formalities for the import of the goods and for their transit through any country.

此買家必須自負風險及費用取得及完成任何進口執照或其它官方授權, 當可適用(參見14 段介紹。) ,為此進口此貨物及為它們過境任何國家的所有海關管制程序。

A3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

A3運送和保險合同

a)      Contract of carriage

a) 運送合同

The seller must contract on usual terms at his own expense for the carriage of the goods to the named port of destination by the usual route in a seagoing vessel (or inland waterway vessel as the case may be) of the type normally used for the transport of goods of the contract description.

此賣主必須以一般條件自費簽約為此貨物運送到此指名目的地港口藉由此一般路徑於一艘海洋航行中的船舶 (或如此情況得是內陸水路船舶) 常態地此型式被使用為運送此合同品名貨物。

b) Contract of insurance

b) 保險合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10)

沒有義務(參考10段介紹)

B3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

B3運送和保險合同

a)      Contract of carriage

a) 運送合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10)

沒有義務(參考10段介紹)

b) Contract of insurance

b) 保險合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10).

沒有義務(參考10段介紹)  

A4 Delivery

A4 交付

The seller must deliver the goods on board the vessel at the port of shipment on the date or within the agreed period.

此賣主必須交付此貨物於特定日期或於同意期間內在指定的裝運港口裝載上船。

B4 Taking delivery

B4接受交付

The buyer must accept delivery of the goods when they have been delivered in accordance with A4 and receive them from the carrier at the named port of destination.

此買家必須接受此貨物的交付當他們已依據A4完成交付及接收它們自在此指名的目的地港運送人。

A5 Transfer of risks

A5 移動風險

The seller must, subject to the provisions of B5, bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods until such time as they have passed the ship's rail at the port of shipment.

此賣主必須, 依據此B5條款, 負擔對此貨物的所有損失或損壞風險直到他們已通過在指名裝運港口通過此船舶的船弦時間為止。

B5 Transfer of risks

B5 移動風險

The buyer must bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods from the time they have passed the ship's rail at the port of shipment. The buyer must, should he fail to give notice in accordance with B7, bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods from the agreed date or the expiry date of the period fixed for shipment provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods.

此買家必須負擔此貨物損失或損壞的所有風險自從他們已通過此在裝運港口船舶的船弦時間起。此買家必須, 當他未能依據B7給予通知, 自於此決定為裝運期間此同意的日期或此有效日期起負擔此貨物損失或損壞的所有風險假如, 無論如何, 為此貨物已完整地合適於此合同, 也就是說, 清楚地堆儲或以其它不同方式被確認係如合同貨物。

A6 Division of costs

A6 費用配分

The seller must, subject to the provisions of B6, pay

此賣主必須, 依據此B6條款, 支付

• all costs relating to the goods until such time as they have been delivered in accordance with A4; and

相關此貨物的所有費用直到他們已依據A4完成交付時間為止; 並且

• the freight and all other costs resulting from A3 a), including the costs of loading the goods on board and any charges for unloading at the agreed port of discharge which were for the seller's account under the contract of carriage; and

此運費及所有其它導因自A3 a)費用, 於此運送合同項下其是為賣方的帳包括裝載此貨物在船上及在此同意的卸貨港任何卸載費用; 並且

• where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), the costs of customs formalities necessary for export as well as all duties, taxes and other charges payable upon export, and for their transit through any country if they were for the seller's account under the contract of carriage.

當可適用(參見14段介紹), 為出口必需的海關管制程序費用及所有關稅, 稅費及於出口, 和為它們過境任何國家其他應付費用於此運送合同項下如果它們這樣是為此賣主的帳。

B6 Division of costs

B6 費用配分

The buyer must, subject to the provisions of A3 a), pay

此買家必須, 根據此A3 a)條款, 支付

• all costs relating to the goods from the time they have been delivered in accordance with A4; and

`相關此貨物所有費用自他們已依據A4完成交付時間起; 並且

• all costs and charges relating to the goods whilst in transit until their arrival at the port of destination, unless such costs and charges were for the seller's account under the contract of carriage; and

相關此貨物在轉運中所有費用和支出迄它們抵達目的地港口止, 除非該費用和支出於運送合同項下是為此賣主的帳; 並且

• unloading costs including lighterage and wharfage charges, unless such costs and charges were for the seller's account under the contract of carriage; and

卸載費用包括燈光使用費及碼頭使用費, 除非該費用和支出於運送合同項下是為此賣主的帳; 並且

• all additional costs incurred if he fails to give notice in accordance with B7, for the goods from the agreed date or the expiry date of the period fixed for shipment, provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods; and

所有增加的費用肇因如他未能依據B7給予通知, 為此貨物自於此決定為裝運期間此同意的日期或此有效日期起, 假設, 無論如何, 此貨物已完整地合適於此合同, 也就是說, 清楚地堆儲或以其它不同方式被確認係如此合同貨物; 並且

• where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14) , all duties, taxes and other charges as well as the costs of carrying out customs formalities payable upon import of the goods and, where necessary, for their transit through any country unless included within the cost of the contract of carriage.

當可適用(參見14段介紹), 所有關稅, 稅費及其他費用和此支付於進口此貨物時及, 當必需, 為它們過境任何國家應付完成海關管制程序費用除非已包括於運送合同中。

A7 Notice to the buyer

A7 通知此買家

The seller must give the buyer sufficient notice that the goods have been delivered in accordance with A4 as well as any other notice required in order to allow the buyer to take measures which are normally necessary to enable him to take the goods.

此賣主必須給此買家充足的通知為此貨物已依據A4完成交付及任何其它通知被要求為要允許此買家採行措施其常態地是必要的以能讓他接受此貨物。

B7 Notice to the seller

B7 通知此賣主

The buyer must, whenever he is entitled to determine the time for shipping the goods and/or the port of destination, give the seller sufficient notice thereof.

此買家必須, 每當他有權決定裝運此貨物時間及/或此目的地港口, 由此給此賣主充足的通知。

A8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

A8 交付證明、運送單據或等效電子訊息

 

The seller must at his own expense provide the buyer without delay with the usual transport document for the agreed port of destination.

此賣主必須無延遲地自費提供此買家到此同意的目的地港口通用的運送單據。

This document (for example a negotiable bill of lading, a non-negotiable sea waybill or an inland waterway document) must cover the contract goods, be dated within the period agreed for shipment, enable the buyer to claim the goods from the carrier at the port of destination and, unless otherwise agreed, enable the buyer to sell the goods in transit by the transfer of the document to a subsequent buyer (the negotiable bill of lading) or by notification to the carrier.

這份單據(例如一份可轉讓的提貨單, 一份不可轉讓的海洋貨單或一份內陸水路單據) 必須包括此合同貨物, 被標註於此同意裝運期間內, 讓此買家能自在目的地港口的運送人提領貨物及, 除非經其它方式同意, 讓此買家藉由轉讓此單據(此可轉讓的提單)或藉由通知給此運送人銷售此貨物轉讓給一位後續的買家。

When such a transport document is issued in several originals, a full set of originals must be presented to the buyer.

當此一運送單據以多份正本被簽發, 一整套正本必需被提示給此買家。

Where the seller and the buyer have agreed to communicate electronically, the document referred to in the preceding paragraphs may be replaced by an equivalent electronic data interchange (EDI) message.

當此賣主和此買家已同意電子通信, 此在前段中被言及的單據得被由一份等效電子交換訊息(EDI)替換。

B8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

B8 交付證明、運送單據或等效電子訊息

 

The buyer must accept the transport document in accordance with A8 if it is in conformity with the contract.

此買家必須接受依據A8交付證明如它是和此合同一致。

 

A9 Checking - packaging - marking

A9 檢查- 包裝- 標號

The seller must pay the costs of those checking operations (such as checking quality, measuring, weighing, counting) which are necessary for the purpose of delivering the goods in accordance with A4.

此賣主必須付費於這些檢查作業(譬如檢查品質, 丈量, 磅重, 計數) 其依據A4為此交付此貨物目的是所必需的。

The seller must provide at his own expense packaging (unless it is usual for the particular trade to ship the goods of the contract description unpacked) which is required for the transport of the goods arranged by him. Packaging is to be marked appropriately.

此賣家必需自費提供包裝(除非它是常態於特別貿易裝運此合同品名貨物無包裝)其被要求於運送此由其所安排的貨物。包裝將適當地被標記。

B9 Inspection of goods

B9 貨物檢查

The buyer must pay the costs of any pre-shipment inspection except when such inspection is mandated by the authorities of the country of export.

H31買家必須支付任何裝船前檢查的費用, 除當該檢查是由出口國當局強制。

A10 Other obligations

A10 其它義務

The seller must render the buyer at the latter's request, risk and expense, every assistance in obtaining any documents or equivalent electronic messages (other than those mentioned  in A8) issued or transmitted in the country of shipment and/or of origin which the buyer may require for the import of the goods and, where necessary, for their transit through any country. The seller must provide the buyer, upon request, with the necessary information for procuring insurance.

此賣主必須通報此買家如後要求、風險和費用, 每一協助以取得任何單據或等效電子訊息(除這些在A8所提及外) 於裝運及/或原產國被簽發或被傳送其此買家得要求為此貨物進口及, 當必要時, 為它們過境任何國家。此賣主必須提供此買家, 根據要求, 以取得保險必要的資訊。

B10 Other obligations

B10  其它義務

The buyer must pay all costs and charges incurred in obtaining the documents or equivalent electronic messages mentioned in A10 and reimburse those incurred by the seller in rendering his assistance in accordance therewith.

此買家必須支付所有費用和支出肇因於取得在A10中提及的單據或等效電子訊息和償還那些肇因於由此賣主依據隨後給與它的協助。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CIF / COST, INSURANCE AND FREIGHT (... named port of destination)

到指定目的地港運費保費含內價 (... 指定目的港)

 

«Cost, Insurance and Freight» means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment. The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination BUT the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time of delivery, are transferred from the seller to the buyer. However, in CIF the seller also has to procure marine insurance against the buyer's risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage.

«到指定目的地港運費保費含內價(Cost, Insurance and Freight)» 意味著此賣主交付當此貨物通過在裝運港口中的船舶的船弦。此賣主必須支付必要的費用和運費以帶送此貨物到此指名目的地港口但是此貨物的損失或損壞風險, 及任何附加的費用由因事情發生在交付之後, 是被從此賣主移動給此買家。無論如何, 在到指定目的地港運費保費含內價(CIF)中此賣主同時必須取得海運保險對應在此運送中此買家的貨物損失或損壞風險。

 

Consequently, the seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium. The buyer should note that under the CIF term the seller is required to obtain insurance only on minimum cover (Refer to Introduction paragraph 9.3). Should the buyer wish to have the protection of greater cover, he would either need to agree as much expressly with the seller or to make his own extra insurance arrangements.

因此, 此賣主簽約為保險及支付此保險費用。此買家當注意到於到指定目的地港運費保費含內價(CIF)條件項下此賣主被要求只在最小的範圍獲得保險 (參見9.3段介紹) 當此買家希望有此更大的保護範圍, 他或會需要更明白地同意此賣主或以為他自己額外的保險安排。

 

The CIF term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term can be used only for sea and inland waterway transport. If the parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship's rail, the CIP term should be used.

此到指定目的地港運費保費含內價(CIF)條件要求此賣主要清關此貨物待出口。 這條件僅能被使用於海運及內陸水路運送。如果各方無意欲交付此貨物跨越船軌, 此到指定目的地運費保費付訖價(CIP)條件當該被使用。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CIF / COST, INSURANCE AND FREIGHT (.. named port of destination)到指定目的地港運費保費含內價 (...指定目的港)

THE SELLER'S OBLIGATIONS

此賣主的義務

THE BUYER'S OBLIGATIONS

此買主的義務

A1 Provision of goods in conformity with the contract

A1依此合同供應貨物

The seller must provide the goods and the commercial invoice, or its equivalent electronic message, in conformity with the contract of sale and any other evidence of conformity which may be required by the contract.

此賣主必須提供此貨物和此商業發票, 或它的等效電子訊息, 與銷售合同一致及任何其它與合同要求一致的證明。

B1 Payment of the price

B1依此價付款

The buyer must pay the price as provided in the contract of sale.

此買家必須支付係如銷售合同預先約定價款。

A2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

A2執照、授權和管制程序

The seller must obtain at his own risk and expense any export licence or other official authorisation and carry out, where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14) , all customs formalities necessary for the export of the goods.

此賣主必須自負風險及費用取得及完成任何出口執照或其它官方授權, 當可適用(參見14 段介紹。) ,為此出口此貨物必要的所有海關管制程序。

B2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

B2執照、授權和管制程序

The buyer must obtain at his own risk and expense any import licence or other official authorisation and carry out, where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), all customs formalities for the import of the goods and for their transit through any country.

此買家必須自負風險及費用取得及完成任何進口執照或其它官方授權, 當可適用(參見14 段介紹。) ,為此進口此貨物及為它們過境任何國家的所有海關管制程序。

A3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

A3運送和保險合同

a)      Contract of carriage

a) 運送合同

The seller must contract on usual terms at his own expense for the carriage of the goods to the named port of destination by the usual route in a seagoing vessel (or inland waterway vessel as the case may be) of the type normally used for the transport of goods of the contract description.

此賣主必須以一般條件自費簽約為此貨物運送到此指名目的地港口藉由此一般路徑於一艘海洋航行中的船舶 (或如此情況得是內陸水路船舶) 常態地此型式被使用為運送此合同品名貨物。

b) Contract of insurance

b) 保險合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph沒有義務(參考10段介紹)

B3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

B3運送和保險合同

a) Contract of carriage

a) 運送合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10)

沒有義務(參考10段介紹)

b) Contract of insurance

b) 保險合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10).

沒有義務(參考10段介紹)

A4 Delivery

A4 交付

The seller must deliver the goods on board the vessel at the port of shipment on the date or within the agreed period.

此賣主必須交付此貨物於特定日期或於同意期間內在指定的裝運港口裝載上船。

B4 Taking delivery

B4接受交付

The buyer must accept delivery of the goods when they have been delivered in accordance with A4 and receive them from the carrier at the named port of destination.

此買家必須接受此貨物的交付當他們已依據A4完成交付及接收它們自在指名的目的地港運送人。

A5 Transfer of risks

A5 移動風險

The seller must, subject to the provisions of B5, bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods until such time as they have passed the ship's rail at the port of shipment.

此賣主必須, 依據此B5條款, 負擔對此貨物的所有損失或損壞風險直到他們已通過在指名裝運港口通過此船舶的船弦時間為止。

B5 Transfer of risks

B5 移動風險

The buyer must bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods from the time they have passed the ship's rail at the port of shipment.
The buyer must, should he fail to give notice in accordance with B7, bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods from the agreed date or the expiry date of the period fixed for shipment provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods.

此買家必須負擔此貨物損失或損壞的所有風險自從他們已通過此在裝運港口船舶的船弦時間起。此買家必須, 當他未能依據B7給予通知, 自於此決定為裝運期間此同意的日期或此有效日期起負擔此貨物損失或損壞的所有風險假如, 無論如何, 為此貨物已完整地合適於此合同, 也就是說, 清楚地堆儲或以其它不同方式被確認係如合同貨物。

A6 Division of costs

A6 費用配分

The seller must, subject to the provisions of B6. pay

此賣主必須, 依據此B6條款, 支付

• all costs relating to the goods until such time as they have been delivered in accordance with A4; and

相關此貨物的所有費用直到他們已依據A4完成交付時間為止; 並且

• the freight and all other costs resulting from A3 a), including the costs of loading the goods on board; and

此運費及所有其它導因自A3 a)費用, 包括裝載此貨物在船上的費用; 並且

• the costs of insurance resulting from A3 b); and

保險的費用導因自A3 b); 並且

• any charges for unloading at the agreed port of discharge which were for the seller's account under the contract of carriage; and

任何費用為卸載在同意卸貨港口於此運送合同項下其是為賣方的帳; 並且

• where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), the costs of customs formalities necessary for export as well as all duties, taxes and other charges payable upon export, and for their transit through any country if they were for the seller's account under the contract of carriage.

當可適用(參見14段介紹), 為出口必需的海關管制程序費用及所有關稅, 稅費及於出口, 和為它們過境任何國家其他應付費用於此運送合同項下如果它們這樣是為此賣主的帳。

B6 Division of costs

B6 費用配分

The buyer must, subject to the provisions of A3, pay

此買家必須, 根據此A3 a)條款, 支付

• all costs relating to the goods from the time they have been delivered in accordance with A4; and

相關此貨物所有費用自他們已依據A4完成交付時間起; 並且

• all costs and charges relating to the goods whilst in transit until their arrival at the port of destination, unless such costs and charges were for the seller's account under the contract of carriage; and

相關此貨物在轉運中所有費用和支出迄它們抵達目的地港口止, 除非該費用和支出於運送合同項下是為賣主的帳; 並且

• unloading costs including lighterage and wharfage charges, unless such costs and charges were for the seller's account under the contract of carriage; and

卸載費用包括燈光使用費及碼頭使用費, 除非該費用和支出於運送合同項下是為此賣主的帳; 並且

• all additional costs incurred if he fails to give notice in accordance with B7, for the goods from the agreed date or the expiry date of the period fixed for shipment, provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods; and

所有增加的費用肇因如他未能依據B7給予通知, 為此貨物自於此決定為裝運期間此同意的日期或此有效日期起, 假設, 無論如何, 此貨物已完整地合適於此合同, 也就是說, 清楚地堆儲或以其它不同方式被確認係如此合同貨物; 並且

• where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), all duties, taxes and other charges as well as the costs of carrying out customs formalities payable upon import of the goods and, where necessary, for their transit through any country unless included within the cost of the contract of carriage.

當可適用(參見14段介紹), 所有關稅, 稅費及其他費用和此支付於進口此貨物時及, 當必需, 為它們過境任何國家應付完成海關管制程序費用除非已包括於運送合同中。

A7 Notice to the buyer

A7 通知此買家

The seller must give the buyer sufficient notice that the goods have been delivered in accordance with A4 as well as any other notice required in order to allow the buyer to take measures which are normally necessary to enable him to take the goods.

此賣主必須給此買家充足的通知為此貨物已依據A4完成交付及任何其它通知被要求為要允許此買家採行措施其常態地是必要的以能讓他接受此貨物。

B7 Notice to the seller

B7 通知此賣主

The buyer must, whenever he is entitled to determine the time for shipping the goods and/or the port of destination, give the seller sufficient notice thereof.

此買家必須, 每當他有權決定裝運此貨物時間及/或此目的地港口, 由此給此賣主充足的通知。

A8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

A8 交付證明、運送單據或等效電子訊息

The seller must, at his own expense, provide the buyer without delay with the usual transport document for the agreed port of destination.

此賣主必須無延遲地自費提供此買家到此同意的目的地港口通用的運送單據。

This document (for example a negotiable bill of lading, a non-negotiable sea waybill or an inland waterway document) must cover the contract goods, be dated within the period agreed for shipment, enable the buyer to claim the goods from the carrier at the port of destination and, unless otherwise agreed, enable the buyer to sell the goods in transit by the transfer of the document to a subsequent buyer (the negotiable bill of lading) or by notification to the carrier.

這份單據(例如一份可轉讓的提貨單, 一份不可轉讓的海洋貨單或一份內陸水路單據) 必須包括此合同貨物, 被標註於此同意裝運期間內, 讓此買家能自在目的地港口的運送人提領貨物及, 除非經其它方式同意, 讓此買家藉由轉讓此單據(此可轉讓的提單)或藉由通知給此運送人銷售此貨物轉讓給一位後續的買家。

When such a transport document is issued in several originals, a full set of originals must be presented to the buyer.

當此一運送單據以多份正本被簽發, 一整套正本必需被提示給此買家。

Where the seller and the buyer have agreed to communicate electronically, the document referred to in the preceding paragraphs may be replaced by an equivalent electronic data interchange (EDI) message.

當此賣主和此買家已同意電子通信, 此在前段中被言及的單據得被由一份等效電子交換訊息(EDI)替換。

B8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

B8 交付證明、運送單據或等效電子訊息

The buyer must accept the transport document in accordance with A8 if it is in conformity with the contract.

此買家必須接受依據A8交付證明如它是和此合同一致。

A9 Checking - packaging - marking

A9 檢查- 包裝- 標號

The seller must pay the costs of those checking operations (such as checking quality, measuring, weighing, counting) which are necessary for the purpose of delivering the goods in accordance with A4.

此賣主必須付費於這些檢查作業(譬如檢查品質, 丈量, 磅重, 計數) 其依據A4為此交付此貨物目的是所必需的。

The seller must provide at his own expense packaging (unless it is usual for the particular trade to ship the goods of the contract description unpacked) which is required for the transport of the goods arranged by him. Packaging is to be marked appropriately.

此賣家必需自費提供包裝(除非它是常態於特別貿易裝運此合同品名貨物無包裝)其被要求於運送此由其所安排的貨物。包裝將適當地被標記。

B9 Inspection of goods

B9 貨物檢查

The buyer must pay the costs of any pre-shipment inspection except when such inspection is mandated by the authorities of the country of export.

此買家必須支付任何裝船前檢查的費用, 除當該檢查是由出口國當局強制。

A10 Other obligations

A10 其它義務

The seller must render the buyer at the latter's request, risk and expense, every assistance in obtaining any documents or equivalent electronic messages (other than those mentioned in A8) issued or transmitted in the country of shipment and/or of origin which the buyer may require for the import of the goods and, where necessary, for their transit through any country. The seller must provide the buyer, upon request, with the necessary information for procuring any additional insurance.

此賣主必須通報此買家如後要求、風險和費用, 每一協助以取得任何單據或等效電子訊息(除這些在A8所提及外) 於裝運及/或原產國被簽發或被傳送其此買家得要求為此貨物進口及, 當必要時, 為它們過境任何國家。此賣主必須提供此買家, 根據要求, 以取得附加保險必要的資訊。

B10 Other obligations

B10  其它義務

The buyer must pay all costs and charges incurred in obtaining the documents or equivalent electronic messages mentioned in A10 and reimburse those incurred by the seller in rendering his assistance in accordance therewith.

此買家必須支付所有費用和支出肇因於取得在A10中提及的單據或等效電子訊息和償還那些肇因於由此賣主依據隨後給與它的協助。

The buyer must provide the seller, upon request, with the necessary information for procuring insurance.

此買家必須提供此賣主, 根據要求, 以取得保險必要的資訊。

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

СРТ / CARRIAGE PAID TO (... named place of destination)

到指定地方運費付訖價 (… 指定目的地)

 

«Carriage paid to...» means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him but the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination. This means that the buyer bears all risks and any other costs occurring after the goods have been so delivered.
«Carrier» means any person who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of transport, by rail, road, air, sea, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes.
If subsequent carriers are used for the carriage to the agreed destination, the risk passes when the goods have been delivered to the first carrier.

The CPT term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport including multimodal transport.

«到指定地方運費付訖價 (Carriage paid to...)»意味著此賣主交付此貨物給此由他指定的運送人但是此賣主必需額外支付必要的運送費用以帶送此貨物到此指名目的地。這意味著此買家負擔發生在此貨物已被如此交付後所有風險和任何其它費用。 «運送人(Carrier)»意味著任何人其, 在一份運送合同中, 承擔要履行或促成履行, 以鐵路, 公路, 航空, 海洋, 內陸水路或由一諸等模式組合的運送。

如果後續運送人被使用為此運送到此所同意的目的地, 此風險轉遞當此貨物已完成交付給此第一運送人
此到指定地方運費付訖價 (CPT)條件要求此賣主要清關此貨物待出口。這條件得被使用不拘於特定運送模式包含複式運送。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

СРТ / CARRIAGE PAID TO (... named place of destination)到指定地方運費付訖價 (… 指定目的地)

THE SELLER'S OBLIGATIONS

此賣主的義務

THE BUYER'S OBLIGATIONS

此買主的義務

A1 Provision of goods in conformity with the contract

A1依此合同供應貨物

The seller must provide the goods and the commercial invoice, or its equivalent electronic message, in conformity with the contract of sale and any other evidence of conformity which may be required by the contract.

此賣主必須提供此貨物和此商業發票, 或它的等效電子訊息, 與銷售合同一致及任何其它與合同要求一致的證明。

B1 Payment of the price

B1依此價付款

The buyer must pay the price as provided in the contract of sale.

此買家必須支付係如銷售合同預先約定價款。

A2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

A2執照、授權和管制程序

The seller must obtain at his own risk and expense any export licence or other official authorisation and carry out, where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), all customs formalities necessary for the export of the goods.

此賣主必須自負風險及費用取得及完成任何出口執照或其它官方授權, 當可適用(參見14 段介紹。) ,為此出口此貨物必要的所有海關管制程序。

B2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

B2執照、授權和管制程序

The buyer must obtain at his own risk and expense any import licence or other official authorisation and carry out, where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), all customs formalities for the import of the goods and for their transit through any country.

此買家必須自負風險及費用取得及完成任何進口執照或其它官方授權, 當可適用(參見14 段介紹。) ,為此貨物進口及為它們過境任何國家的所有海關管制程序。

A3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

A3運送和保險合同

a)      Contract of carriage

a) 運送合同

The seller must contract on usual terms at his own expense for the carriage of the goods to the agreed point at the named place of destination by a usual route and in a customary manner. If a point is not agreed or is not determined by practice, the seller may select the point at the named place of destination which best suits his purpose.

此賣主必須以一般條件自費簽約為此貨物運送到到在此指名目的地此同意的地點藉由一個一般路徑及以一個慣用的方式。 如果一個地點不被同意或在實務上不被決定, 此賣家得挑選此於此目的地指名地方其最合適他的目的地點

b) Contract of insurance

b) 保險合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10).

沒有義務(參考10段介紹)

B3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

B3運送和保險合同

a) Contract of carriage

a) 運送合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10).

沒有義務(參考10段介紹)

b) Contract of insurance

b) 保險合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10).

沒有義務(參考10段介紹)

A4 Delivery

A4 交付

The seller must deliver the goods to the carrier contracted in accordance with A3 or, if there are subsequent carriers to the first carrier, for transport to the agreed point at the named place on the date or within the agreed period.

此賣主必須交付此貨物給依據A3簽約的此運送人或, 如果這兒對此第一運送人有後續的運送人, 為於此同意的日期或於此同意期間內運送到在此指名地方此同意地點。

B4 Taking delivery

B4接受交付

The buyer must accept delivery of the goods when they have been delivered in accordance with A4 and receive them from the carrier at the named place.

此買家必須接受此貨物的交付當他們已依據A4完成交付及接收它們自在指名的地方運送人。

A5 Transfer of risks

A5 移動風險

The seller must, subject to the provisions of B5, bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods until such time as they have been delivered in accordance with A4.

此賣主必須, 依據此B5條款, 負擔對此貨物的所有損失或損壞風險直到他們已依據A4完成交付時間為止。

B5 Transfer of risks

B5 移動風險

The buyer must bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods from the time they have been delivered in accordance with A4.

此買家必須負擔此貨物損失或損壞的所有風險自從他們已依據A4完成交付時間起。

The buyer must, should he fail to give notice in accordance with B7, bear all risks of the goods from the agreed date or the expiry date of the period fixed for delivery provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods.

此買家必須, 當他未能依據B7給予通知,

自於此決定為交付期間此同意的日期或此有效日期起負擔此貨物所有風險假如, 無論如何, 此貨物已完整地合適於此合同, 也就是說, 清楚地堆儲或以其它不同方式被確認係如合同貨物。

A6 Division of costs

A6 費用配分

The seller must, subject to the provisions of B6, pay

此賣主必須, 依據此B6條款, 支付

• all costs relating to the goods until such time as they have been delivered in accordance with A4 as well as the freight and all other costs resulting from A3 a), including the costs of loading the goods and any charges for unloading at the place of destination which were for the seller's account under the contract of carriage; and

相關此貨物的所有費用直到他們已依據A4完成交付時間為止及此運費及所有其它導因自A3 a)費用, 包含此裝載此貨物費用及在此目的地地方任何為卸載支出  於此運送合同項下其是為賣方的帳; 並且

• where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), the costs of customs formalities necessary for export as well as all duties, taxes or other charges payable upon export, and for their transit through any country if they were for the seller's account under the contract of carriage.

當可適用(參見14段介紹), 為出口必需的海關管制程序費用及所有關稅, 稅費或於出口, 和為它們過境任何國家其他應付費用於此運送合同項下如果它們這樣是為此賣主的帳。

B6 Division of costs

B6 費用配分

The buyer must, subject to the provisions of A3 a), pay

此買家必須, 根據此A3 a)條款, 支付

• all costs relating to the goods from the time they have been delivered in accordance with A4; and

相關此貨物所有費用自他們已依據A4完成交付時間起; 並且

• all costs and charges relating to the goods whilst in transit until their arrival at the agreed place of destination, unless such costs and charges were for the seller's account under the contract of carriage; and

相關此貨物在轉運中所有費用和支出迄它們抵達此同意目的地地方, 除非該費用和支出於運送合同項下是為此賣主的帳; 並且

• unloading costs unless such costs and charges were for the seller's account under the contract of carriage; and

卸載費用除非該費用和支出於運送合同項下是為賣主的帳; 並且

• all additional costs incurred if he fails to give notice in accordance with B7, for the goods from the agreed date or the expiry date of the period fixed for dispatch, provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods; and

所有增加的費用肇因如他未能依據B7給予通知, 為此貨物自於此決定為遞交期間此同意的日期或此有效日期起, 假設, 無論如何 , 此貨物已完整地合適於合同, 也就是說, 清楚地堆儲或以其它不同方式被確認係如此合同貨物; 並且

• where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), all duties, taxes and other charges as well as the costs of carrying out customs formalities payable upon import of the goods and for their transit through any country unless included within the cost of the contract of carriage.

當可適用(參見14段介紹), 所有關稅, 稅費及其他費用和此支付於進口此貨物及為它們過境任何國家應付完成海關管制程序費用除非已包括於運送合同中。

A7 Notice to the buyer

A7 通知此買家

The seller must give the buyer sufficient notice that the goods have been delivered in accordance with A4 as well as any other notice required in order to allow the buyer to take measures which are normally necessary to enable him to take the goods.

此賣主必須給此買家充足的通知為此貨物已依據A4完成交付及任何其它通知被要求為要允許此買家採行措施其常態地是必要的以能讓他接受此貨物。

B7 Notice to the seller

B7 通知此賣主

The buyer must, whenever he is entitled to determine the time for dispatching the goods and/or the destination, give the seller sufficient notice thereof.

此買家必須, 每當他有權決定遞交此貨物時間及/或此目的地, 由此給此賣主充足的通知。

A8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

A8 交付證明、運送單據或等效電子訊息

The seller must provide the buyer at the seller's expense, if customary, with the usual transport document or documents (for example a negotiable bill of lading, a non-negotiable sea waybill, an inland waterway document, an air waybill, a railway consignment note, a road consignment note, or a multimodal transport document) for the transport contracted in accordance with A3.

此賣主必須自費提供此買家, 如果為慣例, 此通用的運送單據或依據A3中約定的運送單據(例如一份可轉讓的提貨單, 一份不可轉讓的海洋貨單, 一份內陸水路單據、一份空運貨單、一份鐵路發貨單、一份公路發貨單, 或一份複合運送單據)

Where the seller and the buyer have agreed to communicate electronically, the document referred to in the preceding paragraph may be replaced by an equivalent electronic data interchange (EDI) message.

當此賣主和此買家已同意電子通信, 此在前段中被言及的單據得被由一份等效電子交換訊息(EDI)替換。

B8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

B8 交付證明、運送單據或等效電子訊息

The buyer must accept the transport document in accordance with A8 if it is in conformity with the contract.

此買家必須接受依據A8交付證明如它是和此合同一致。

A9 Checking - packaging - marking

A9 檢查- 包裝- 標號

The seller must pay the costs of those checking operations (such as checking quality, measuring, weighing, counting) which are necessary for the purpose of delivering the goods in accordance with A4.

此賣主必須付費於這些檢查作業(譬如檢查品質, 丈量, 磅重, 計數) 其依據A4為此交付此貨物目的是所必需的。

The seller must provide at his own expense packaging (unless it is usual for the particular trade to send the goods of the contract description unpacked) which is required for the transport of the goods arranged by him. Packaging is to be marked appropriately.

此賣家必需自費提供包裝(除非它是常態於特別貿易送出此合同品名貨物無包裝)其被要求於運送此由其所安排的貨物。包裝將適當地被標記。

B9 Inspection of goods

B9 貨物檢查

The buyer must pay the costs of any pre-shipment inspection except when such inspection is mandated by the authorities of the country of export.

此買家必須支付任何裝船前檢查的費用, 除當該檢查是由出口國當局強制。

 

A10 Other obligations

A10 其它義務

The seller must render the buyer at the latter's request, risk and expense, every assistance in obtaining any documents or equivalent electronic messages (other than those mentioned in A8) issued or transmitted in the country of dispatch and/or of origin which the buyer may require for the import of the goods and for their transit through any country. The seller must provide the buyer, upon request, with the necessary information for procuring insurance.

此賣主必須通報此買家如後要求、風險和費用, 每一協助以取得任何單據或等效電子訊息(除這些在A8所提及外) 於遞交及/或原產國被簽發或被傳送其此買家得要求為此貨物進口及為它們過境任何國家。此賣主必須提供此買家, 根據要求, 以取得保險必要的資訊。

B10 Other obligations

B10  其它義務

The buyer must pay all costs and charges incurred in obtaining the documents or equivalent electronic messages mentioned in A10 and reimburse those incurred by the seller in rendering his assistance in accordance therewith.

此買家必須支付所有費用和支出肇因於取得在A10中提及的單據或等效電子訊息和償還那些肇因於由此賣主依據隨後給與它的協助。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CIP / CARRIAGE AND INSURANCE PAID TO (... named place of destination)

到指定目的地運費保費付訖價(... 指定目的地)

 

«Carriage and Insurance paid to...» means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him but the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination. This means that the buyer bears all risks and any additional costs occurring after the goods have been so delivered. However, in CIP the seller also has to procure insurance against the buyer's risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage.

Consequently, the seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium.

The buyer should note that under the CIP term the seller is required to obtain insurance only on minimum cover (Refer to Introduction paragraph 9.3). Should the buyer wish to have the protection of greater cover, he would either need to agree as much expressly with the seller or to make his own extra insurance arrangements. «Carrier» means any person who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of transport, by rail, road, air, sea, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes.

If subsequent carriers are used for the carriage to the agreed destination, the risk passes when the goods have been delivered to the first carrier.

The CIP term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport including multimodal transport.

«到指定目的地運費保費付訖價(Carriage and Insurance paid to...)» 意味著此賣主交付此貨物給此由他指定的運送人但是此賣主必需額外支付必要的運送費用以帶送此貨物到此指名目的地。這意味著此買家負擔發生在貨物已被如此交付後所有風險和任何增加費用。無論如何, 在到指定目的地運費保費付訖價(CIP)中此賣主同樣必需取得保險對應於此運送中間此買主的貨物損失或損壞的風險

因此, 此賣主為保險簽約及付此保險費用。
此買家當注意為在此到指定目的地運費保費付訖價(CIP)條件項下此賣主被要求獲得保險僅在最小範圍(參見9.3段介紹)。當此買家希望有更大的保護範圍, 他或會需要更明白地同意此賣主投保他自己額外的保險安排。. «運送人(Carrier)»意味著任何人其, 在一份運送合同中, 承擔要履行或促成履行, 以鐵路, 公路, 航空, 海洋, 內陸水路或由一諸等模式組合的運送。

如果後續運送人被使用為此運送到所同意的目的地, 此風險轉遞當此貨物已完成交付給此第一運送人。
此到指定目的地運費保費付訖價(CIP )條件要求此賣主要清關此貨物待出口。這條件得被使用不拘於特定運送模式包含複式運送。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CIP / CARRIAGE AND INSURANCE PAID TO (. named place of destination)到指定目的地運費保費付訖價(..指定目的地)

THE SELLER'S OBLIGATIONS

此賣主的義務

THE BUYER'S OBLIGATIONS

此買主的義務

A1 Provision of goods in conformity with the contract

A1依此合同供應貨物

The seller must provide the goods and the commercial invoice, or its equivalent electronic message, in conformity with the contract of sale and any other evidence of conformity which may be required by the contract.

此賣主必須提供此貨物和此商業發票, 或它的等效電子訊息, 與銷售合同一致及任何其它與合同要求一致的證明。

B1 Payment of the price

B1依此價付款

The buyer must pay the price as provided in the contract of sale.

此買家必須支付係如銷售合同預先約定價款。

 

A2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

A2執照、授權和管制程序

The seller must obtain at his own risk and expense any export licence or other official authorisation and carry out, where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14) , all customs formalities necessary for the export of the goods.

此賣主必須自負風險及費用取得及完成任何出口執照或其它官方授權, 當可適用(參見14 段介紹。) ,為此出口此貨物必要的所有海關管制程序。

B2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

B2執照、授權和管制程序

The buyer must obtain at his own risk and expense any import licence or other official authorisation and carry out, where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), all customs formalities for the import of the goods and for their transit through any country.

此買家必須自負風險及費用取得及完成任何進口執照或其它官方授權, 當可適用(參見14 段介紹。) ,為此貨物進口及為它們過境任何國家的所有海關管制程序。

A3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

A3運送和保險合同

a)      Contract of carriage

a) 運送合同

The seller must contract on usual terms at his own expense for the carriage of the goods to the agreed point at the named place of destination by a usual route and in a customary manner. If a point is not agreed or is not determined by practice, the seller may select the point at the named place of destination which best suits his purpose.

此賣主必須以一般條件自費簽約為此貨物運送到到在此指名目的地此同意的地點藉由一個一般路徑及以一個慣用的方式。 如果一個地點不被同意或在實務上不被決定, 此賣家得挑選此於此目的地指名地方其最合適他的目的地點。

b) Contract of insurance

b) 保險合同

The seller must obtain at his own expense cargo insurance as agreed in the contract, such that the buyer, or any other person having an insurable interest in the goods, shall be entitled to claim directly from the insurer and provide the buyer with the insurance policy or other evidence of insurance cover.

此賣主必需自費獲得係如於此合同中的貨物保險, 如則此買家, 或任何其他人於此貨物中有保險利益者, 當有權直接向保險人索賠及提供此買家保險單或其他投保保險的證明。

The insurance shall be contracted with underwriters or an insurance company of good repute and, failing express agreement to the contrary, be in accordance with minimum cover of the Institute Cargo Clauses (Institute of London Underwriters) or any similar set of clauses. The duration of insurance cover shall be in accordance with B5 and B4.

此保險當和信譽良好的保險業或保險公司簽約及, 沒有不同的協議時, 是依據最小範圍的學院貨物條款(倫敦保險學院) 或任何類似條款組。此保險範圍的時效當依據B5 B4

When required by the buyer, the seller shall provide at the buyer's expense war, strikes, riots and civil commotion risk insurances if procurable. The minimum insurance shall cover the price provided in the contract plus ten per cent (i.e. 110 %) and shall be provided in the currency of the contract.

當此買家要求時, 此賣主當以此買家的付費提供戰爭、罷工、暴動和暴亂風險保險如果可得投保。此最小保險當包含在此合同中提供的價格加百分之十 (110 %)及當被提供以此合同的中的幣別。

B3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

B3運送和保險合同

a) Contract of carriage

a) 運送合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10).

沒有義務(參見10段介紹)

b) Contract of insurance

b) 保險合同

No obligation(Refer to Introduction paragraph 10).

沒有義務(參考10段介紹)

A4 Delivery

A4 交付

The seller must deliver the goods to the carrier contracted in accordance with A3 or, if there are subsequent carriers to the first carrier, for transport to the agreed point at the named place on the date or within the agreed period.

此賣主必須交付此貨物給依據A3簽約的此運送人或, 如果這兒對此第一運送人有後續的運送人, 為於此同意的日期或於此同意期間內運送到在此指名地方此同意地點。

B4 Taking delivery

B4接受交付

The buyer must accept delivery of the goods when they have been delivered in accordance with A4 and receive them from the carrier at the named place.

此買家必須接受此貨物的交付當他們已依據A4完成交付及接收它們自在指名的地方運送人。

A5 Transfer of risks

A5移動風險

The seller must, subject to the provisions of B5, bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods until such time as they have been delivered in accordance with A4.

此賣主必須, 依據此B5條款, 負擔對此貨物的所有損失或損壞風險直到他們已依據A4完成交付時間為止。

B5 Transfer of risks

B5移動風險

The buyer must bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods from the time they have been delivered in accordance with A4.

此買家必須負擔此貨物損失或損壞的所有風險自從他們已依據A4完成交付時間起

The buyer must, should he fail to give notice in accordance with B7, bear all risks of the goods from the agreed date or the expiry date of the period fixed for delivery provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods.

此買家必須, 當他未能依據B7給予通知,

自於此決定為交付期間此同意的日期或此有效日期起負擔此貨物所有風險假如, 無論如何, 此貨物已完整地合適於此合同, 也就是說, 清楚地堆儲或以其它不同方式被確認係如合同貨物。

A6 Division of costs

A6 費用配分

The seller must, subject to the provisions of B6, pay

此賣主必須, 依據此B6條款, 支付

• all costs relating to the goods until such time as they have been delivered in accordance with A4 as well as the freight and all other costs resulting from A3 a), including the costs of loading the goods and any charges for unloading at the place of destination which were for the seller's account under the contract of carriage; and

相關此貨物的所有費用直到他們已依據A4完成交付時間為止及此運費及所有其它導因自A3 a)費用, 包含此裝載此貨物費用及在此目的地地方任何為卸載支出  於此運送合同項下其是為賣方的帳; 並且

• the costs of insurance resulting from A3 b); and

保險的費用導因自A3 b); 並且

• where applicable  (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14) , the costs of customs formalities necessary for export as well as all duties, taxes or other charges payable upon export, and for their transit through any country if they were for the seller's account under the contract of carriage.

當可適用(參見14段介紹), 為出口必需的海關管制程序費用及所有關稅, 稅費或於出口, 和為它們過境任何國家其他應付費用於此運送合同項下如果它們這樣是為此賣主的帳。

B6 Division of costs

B6 費用配分

The buyer must, subject to the provisions of A3 a), pay

此買家必須, 根據此A3 a)條款, 支付

• all costs relating to the goods from the time they have been delivered in accordance with A4; and

相關此貨物所有費用自他們已依據A4完成交付時間起; 並且

• all costs and charges relating to the goods whilst in transit until their arrival at the agreed place of destination, unless such costs and charges were for the seller's account under the contract of carriage; and

相關此貨物在轉運中所有費用和支出迄它們抵達此同意目的地地方, 除非該費用和支出於運送合同項下是為此賣主的帳; 並且

• unloading costs unless such costs and charges were for the seller's account under the contract of carriage; and

卸載費用除非該費用和支出於運送合同項下是為賣主的帳; 並且

• all additional costs incurred if he fails to give notice in accordance with B7, for the goods from the agreed date or the expiry date of the period fixed for dispatch, provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods; and

所有增加的費用肇因如他未能依據B7給予通知, 為此貨物自於此決定為遞交期間此同意的日期或此有效日期起, 假設, 無論如何 , 此貨物已完整地合適於合同, 也就是說, 清楚地堆儲或以其它不同方式被確認係如此合同貨物; 並且

• where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), all duties, taxes and other charges as well as the costs of carrying out customs formalities payable upon import of the goods and for their transit through any country unless included within the cost of the contract of carriage.

當可適用(參見14段介紹), 所有關稅, 稅費及其他費用和此支付於進口此貨物及為它們過境任何國家應付完成海關管制程序費用除非已包括於運送合同中。

A7 Notice to the buyer

A7 通知此買家

The seller must give the buyer sufficient notice that the goods have been delivered in accordance with A4 as well as any other notice required in order to allow the buyer to take measures which are normally necessary to enable him to take the goods.

此賣主必須給此買家充足的通知為此貨物已依據A4完成交付及任何其它通知被要求為要允許此買家採行措施其常態地是必要的以能讓他接受此貨物。

B7 Notice to the seller

B7 通知此賣主

The buyer must, whenever he is entitled to determine the time for dispatching the goods and/or the destination, give the seller sufficient notice thereof.

此買家必須, 每當他有權決定遞交此貨物時間及/或此目的地, 由此給賣主充足的通知。

A8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

A8 交貨證明、運輸文件或等效電子消息

The seller must provide the buyer at the seller's expense, if customary, with the usual transport document or documents (for example a negotiable bill of lading, a non-negotiable sea waybill, an inland waterway document, an air waybill, a railway consignment note, a road consignment note, or a multimodal transport document) for the transport contracted in accordance with A3.

此賣主必須自費提供此買家, 如果為慣例, 此通用的運送單據或依據A3中約定的運送單據(例如一份可轉讓的提貨單, 一份不可轉讓的海洋貨單, 一份內陸水路單據、一份空運貨單、一份鐵路發貨單、一份公路發貨單, 或一份複合運送單據)

Where the seller and the buyer have agreed to communicate electronically, the document referred to in the preceding paragraph may be replaced by an equivalent electronic data interchange (EDI) message.

當此賣主和此買家已同意電子通信, 此在前段中被言及的單據得被由一份等效電子交換訊息(EDI)替換。

B8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

B8 交付證明、運送單據或等效電子訊息

The buyer must accept the transport document in accordance with A8 if it is in conformity with the contract.

此買家必須接受依據A8交付證明如它是和此合同一致。

A9 Checking - packaging - marking

A9 檢查- 包裝- 標記

The seller must pay the costs of those checking operations (such as checking quality, measuring, weighing, counting) which are necessary for the purpose of delivering the goods in accordance with A4.

此賣主必須付費於這些檢查作業(譬如檢查品質, 丈量, 磅重, 計數) 其依據A4為此交付此貨物目的是所必需的。

The seller must provide at his own expense packaging (unless it is usual for the particular trade to send the goods of the contract description unpacked) which is required for the transport of the goods arranged by him. Packaging is to be marked appropriately.

此賣家必需自費提供包裝(除非它是常態於特別貿易送出此合同品名貨物無包裝)其被要求於運送此由其所安排的貨物。包裝將適當地被標記。

B9 Inspection of goods

B9 貨物檢查

The buyer must pay the costs of any pre-shipment inspection except when such inspection is mandated by the authorities of the country of export.

此買家必須支付任何裝船前檢查的費用, 除當該檢查是由出口國當局強制。

A10 Other obligations

A10 其它義務

The seller must render the buyer at the latter's request, risk and expense, every assistance in obtaining any documents or equivalent electronic messages (other than those mentioned in A8) issued or transmitted in the country of dispatch and/or of origin which the buyer may require for the import of the goods and for their transit through any country. The seller must provide the buyer, upon request, with the necessary information for procuring any additional insurance.

此賣主必須通報此買家如後要求、風險和費用, 每一協助以取得任何單據或等效電子訊息(除這些在A8所提及外) 於遞交及/或原產國被簽發或被傳送其此買家得要求為此貨物進口及為它們過境任何國家。此賣主必須提供此買家, 根據要求, 以取得任何附加保險此必要的資訊。

B10 Other obligations

B10  其它義務

The buyer must pay all costs and charges incurred in obtaining the documents or equivalent electronic messages mentioned in A10 and reimburse those incurred by the seller in rendering his assistance in accordance therewith.

此買家必須支付所有費用和支出肇因於取得在A10中提及的單據或等效電子訊息和償還那些肇因於由此賣主依據隨後給與它的協助。

The buyer must provide the seller, upon request, with the necessary information for procuring any additional insurance.

此買家必須提供此賣主, 根據要求, 以取得任何附加保險必要的資訊。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DAF / DELIVERED AT FRONTIER (... named place)

到指定邊境交貨價(... 指定邊境)

 

«Delivered at Frontier» means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on the arriving means of transport not unloaded, cleared for export, but not cleared for import at the named point and place at the frontier, but before the customs border of the adjoining country. The term «frontier» may be used for any frontier including that of the country of export. Therefore, it is of vital importance that the frontier in question be defined precisely by always naming the point and place in the term.
«
到指定邊境交貨價(Delivered at Frontier)»意味著此賣主交付當此貨物被放置在由此買家處置於此抵達的運送工具上未卸載, 已清關待出口, 但在此邊境地方指名地點不被清關待進口, 但在毗鄰國家的海關疆界之前。此條件«邊境(frontier)»得被使用為該出口國家所包括的任一個邊境。所以, 它是至關重要著此在考慮中邊境總是藉由於條件中指名特定地方及地點被更精確定義。

 

However, if the parties wish the seller to be responsible for the unloading of the goods from the arriving means of transport and to bear the risks and costs of unloading, this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale (Refer to Introduction paragraph 11).

無論如何, 如果各方希望此賣主負責自抵達的運送工具卸載此貨物和負擔此卸載的風險和費用, 這當藉由增加明確字詞讓此事於此銷售合同中做的清楚(參見11段介紹)


This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport when goods are to be delivered at a land frontier. When delivery is to take place in the port of destination, on board a vessel or on the quay (wharf), the DES or DEQ terms should be use

這條件得被使用不論此運送模式當貨物在一處邊境土地將被交付。當交付將發生在此目的地港口, 在船上或在碼頭(), 此到指定目的港船上交貨價(DES) 或到指定目的港碼頭交貨價(DEQ)條件當被使用。

 

DAF / DELIVERED AT FRONTIER (... named place) 到指定邊境交貨價(... 指定邊境)

THE SELLER'S OBLIGATIONS

此賣主的義務

THE BUYER'S OBLIGATIONS

此買主的義務

A1 Provision of goods in conformity with the contract

A1依此合同供應貨物

The seller must provide the goods and the commercial invoice, or its equivalent electronic message, in conformity with the contract of sale and any other evidence of conformity which may be required by the contract.

此賣主必須提供此貨物和此商業發票, 或它的等效電子訊息, 與銷售合同一致及任何其它與合同要求一致的證明。

B1 Payment of the price

B1依此價付款

The buyer must pay the price as provided in the contract of sale.

此買家必須支付係如銷售合同預先約定價款。

A2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

A2執照、授權和管制程序

The seller must obtain at his own risk and expense any export licence or other official authorisation or other document necessary for placing the goods at the buyer's disposal.

此賣主必須自負風險及費用取得任何出口執照或其它官方授權或為依買主的處置放置貨物其它必需的單據。

The seller must carry out, where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14). , all customs formalities necessary for the export of the goods to the named place of delivery at the frontier and for their transit through any country.

此賣家必需完成 當可適用(參見14 段介紹。) , 所有為此貨物出口及為它們過境任何國家到在此邊界此指名交付地方的所有海關管制程序。

B2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

B2執照、授權和管制程序

The buyer must obtain at his own risk and expense any import licence or other official authorisation or other documents and carry out, where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14)., all customs formalities necessary for the import of the goods, and for their subsequent transport.

此買家必須自負風險及費用取得及完成任何進口執照或其它官方授權或其它單據, 當可適用(參見14 段介紹。) ,為此貨物進口, 和為他們的後續運送必需的所有海關管制程序。

A3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

A3運送和保險合同

a) Contract of carriage

a) 運送合同

i) The seller must contract at his own expense for the carriage of the goods to the named point, if any, at the place of delivery at the frontier. If a point at the named place of delivery at the frontier is not agreed or is not determined by practice, the seller may select the point at the named place of delivery which best suits his purpose.

i) 此賣主必須自費簽約為運送此貨物到此指名地點, 如有, 在此邊境在此交付地方。如果在此邊境在此指名交付地方的地點是不被同意或於實務上未被決定, 此賣主得挑選在此指名交付地方其最合適他的目的特定地點。

ii) However, if requested by the buyer, the seller may agree to contract on usual terms at the buyer's risk and expense for the on-going carriage of the goods beyond the named place at the frontier to the final destination in the country of import named by the buyer. The seller may decline to make the contract and, if he does, shall promptly notify the buyer accordingly.

ii) 無論如何, 如果由此買家要求, 此賣主得同意以一般條件以此買主的風險及費用為此開航中貨物運送超越由此買主所指名此進口國在此最後目的地此邊界此指名地方。此賣主得拒絕簽約及, 如果他做了, 隨後當立即通知此買家。

b) Contract of insurance

b) 保險合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10).

沒有義務(參考10段介紹)

B3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

B3運送和保險合同

a) Contract of carriage

a) 運送合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14).

沒有義務(參見14段介紹)

b) Contract of insurance

b) 保險合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14).

沒有義務(參見14段介紹)

A4 Delivery

A4 交付

The seller must place the goods at the disposal of the buyer on the arriving means of transport not unloaded at the named place of delivery at the frontier on the date or within the agreed period.

此賣主在此日期或在此同意的期間內在此邊境此指名交付的地方必須放置此貨物在此買家處置於此運抵運送工具無需卸載。

B4 Taking delivery

B4接受交付

The buyer must take delivery of the goods when they have been delivered in accordance with A4.

此買家必須接受此貨物的交付當他們已依據A4完成交付。

A5 Transfer of risks

A5 移動風險

The seller must, subject to the provisions of B5, bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods until such time as they have been delivered in accordance with A4.

此賣主必須, 依據此B5條款,負擔對此貨物的所有損失或損壞風險直到他們已依據A4完成交付時間為止。

B5 Transfer of risks

B5 移動風險

The buyer must bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods from the time they have been delivered in accordance with A4.

此買家必須負擔此貨物損失或損壞的所有風險自從他們已依據A4完成交付時間起

The buyer must, should he fail to give notice in accordance with B7, bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods from the agreed date or the expiry date of the agreed period for delivery provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods.

此買家必須, 當他未能依據B7給予通知, 自於此同意為交付期間此同意的日期或此有效日期起負擔此貨物所有損失或損壞風險假如, 無論如何, 此貨物已完整地合適於合同, 也就是說, 清楚地堆儲或以其它不同方式被確認係如合同貨物。

A6 Division of costs

A6 費用配分

The seller must, subject to the provisions of B6, pay

此賣主必須, 依據此B6條款, 支付

• in addition to the costs resulting from A3 a), all costs relating to the goods until such time as they have been delivered in accordance with A4; and

此費用的增加起因於A3 a), 相關此貨物的所有費用直到他們已依據A4完成交付時間為止; 並且

• where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14)., the costs of customs formalities necessary for export as well as all duties, taxes or other charges payable upon export of the goods and for their transit through any country prior to delivery in accordance with A4.

當可適用(參見14段介紹), 依據A4為此出口必需的海關管制程序費用及所有關稅, 稅費或於此貨物出口, 和為它們過境任何國家於交付之前其他應付費用。

B6 Division of costs

B6 費用配分

The buyer must pay

此買家必須支付

• all costs relating to the goods from the time they have been delivered in accordance with A4 including the expenses of unloading necessary to take delivery of the goods from the arriving means of transport at the named place of delivery at the frontier; and

相關此貨物的所有費用自它們已依據A4已完成交付時間起包括自此在邊境此指名交付地方抵達的運送工具接受交付此貨物卸載必需的費用; 並且

• all additional costs incurred if he fails to take delivery of the goods when they have been delivered in accordance with A4, or to give notice in accordance with B7, provided, however, that the goods have been appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods; and

所有增加的費用肇因如他未能接受此貨物交付當他們依據A4已完成交付, 或依據B7給予通知, 假設, 無論如何, 此貨物已合適於此合同, 也就是說, 清楚地堆儲或以其它不同方式被確認係如此合同貨物; 並且

• where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), the cost of customs formalities as well as all duties, taxes and other charges payable upon import of the goods and for their subsequent transport.

當可適用(參見14段介紹),此海關管制程序費用及所有關稅, 稅費或於進口此貨物及為它們後續運送其他應付費用。

A7 Notice to the buyer

A7 通知此買家

The seller must give the buyer sufficient notice of the dispatch of the goods to the named place at the frontier as well as any other notice required in order to allow the buyer to take measures which are normally necessary to enable him to take delivery of the goods.

此賣主必須給此買家遞交此貨物到此在邊境指名地方充足通知及任何其它被要求通知為了允許此買家採行措施其通常地是必要地以能讓他接受此貨物。

B7 Notice to the seller

B7 通知此賣主

The buyer must, whenever he is entitled to determine the time within an agreed period and/or the point of taking delivery at the named place, give the seller sufficient notice thereof.

此買家必須, 每當他有權決定此時間於一同意期間及/或在此指名地方接受交付地點, 由此給此賣主充足的通知。

A8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

A8 交貨證明、運輸文件或等效電子消息

i) The seller must provide the buyer at the seller's expense with the usual document or other evidence of the delivery of the goods at the named place at the frontier in accordance with A3 a) i).

i) 依據A3 a) i)此賣主必須自費提供此買家此通用的單據或其它證明此貨物交付在此邊境指名地方。

ii) The seller must, should the parties agree on on-going carriage beyond the frontier in accordance with A3 a)

ii) 此賣主必須, 當各方同意依據A3 a)於此開航中運送超越此邊界

ii), provide the buyer at the latter's request, risk and expense, with the through document of transport normally obtained in the country of dispatch covering on usual terms the transport of the goods from the point of dispatch in that country to the place of final destination in the country of import named by the buyer.

ii) 提供此買家如後要求、風險和費用, 及過運運送單據一般地為於遞交國獲得涵蓋以一般條件自此該國遞交地點到由此買方指名進口國家此最後目的地地方。

Where the seller and the buyer have agreed to communicate electronically, the document referred to in the preceding paragraph may be replaced by an equivalent electronic data interchange (EDI) message.

當此賣主和此買家已同意電子通信, 此在前段中被言及的單據得被由一份等效電子交換訊息(EDI)替換。

B8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

B8 交付證明、運送單據或等效電子訊息

The buyer must accept the transport document and/or other evidence of delivery in accordance with A8.

依據A8此買家必須接受此運送單據及/或其它交付證明。

A9 Checking - packaging - marking

A9 檢查- 包裝- 標記

The seller must pay the costs of those checking operations (such as checking quality, measuring, weighing, counting) which are necessary for the purpose of delivering the goods in accordance with A4.

此賣主必須付費於這些檢查作業(譬如檢查品質, 丈量, 磅重, 計數) 其依據A4為此交付此貨物目的是所必需的。

The seller must provide at his own expense packaging (unless it is agreed or usual for the particular trade to deliver the goods of the contract description unpacked) which is required for the delivery of the goods at the frontier and for the subsequent transport to the extent that the circumstances (for example modalities, destination) are made known to the seller before the contract of sale is concluded. Packaging is to be marked appropriately.

此賣家必需自費提供包裝(除非它被同意或常態於特別貿易交付此合同品名貨物無包裝)其被要求為交付此貨物在此邊境及後續運送在此程度為此情況(例如形式, 目的地) 於此銷售合同被議決之前被為賣家週知。包裝將適當地被標記。

B9 Inspection of goods

B9 貨物檢查

The buyer must pay the costs of any pre-shipment inspection except when such inspection is mandated by the authorities of the country of export.

此買家必須支付任何裝船前檢查的費用, 除當該檢查是由出口國當局強制。

A10 Other obligations

A10 其它義務

The seller must render the buyer at the latter's request, risk and expense, every assistance in obtaining any documents or equivalent electronic messages (other than those mentioned in A8) issued or transmitted in the country of dispatch and/or origin which the buyer may require for the import of the goods and, where necessary, for their transit through any country. The seller must provide the buyer, upon request, with the necessary information for procuring insurance.

此賣主必須通報此買家如後要求、風險和費用, 每一協助以取得任何單據或等效電子訊息(除這些在A8所提及外) 於遞交及/或原產國被簽發或被傳送其此買家得要求為此貨物進口及, 當必要時, 為它們過境任何國家。此賣主必須提供此買家, 根據要求, 以取得任何保險此必要的資訊。

B10 Other obligations

B10  其它義務

The buyer must pay all costs and charges incurred in obtaining the documents or equivalent electronic messages mentioned in A10 and reimburse those incurred by the seller in rendering his assistance in accordance therewith.

此買家必須支付所有費用和支出肇因於取得在A10中提及的單據或等效電子訊息和償還那些肇因於由此賣主依據隨後給與它的協助。

If necessary, according to A3 a) ii), the buyer must provide the seller at his request and the buyer's risk and expense with the exchange control authorisation, permits, other documents or certified copies thereof, or with the address of the final destination of the goods in the country of import for the purpose of obtaining the through document of transport or any other document contemplated in A8 ii).

如果需要, 根據A3 a) ii), 此買家必須提供此賣主以他的請求和此買家的風險和費用由此以交換控制授權、許可證、其它文件或被確認的副本, 或此物品在此進口國的此最後目的地的此地址以為獲得此過運運送單據或任何其他於A8 ii)已預期的單據。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DES / DELIVERED EX SHIP (... named port of destination)

到指定目的港船上交貨價 (... 指定目的港)

 

«Delivered Ex Ship» means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on board the ship not cleared for import at the named port of destination.The seller has to bear all the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to the named port of destination before discharging. If the parties wish the seller to bear the costs and risks of discharging the goods, then the DEQ term should be used.
This term can be used only when the goods are to be delivered by sea or inland waterway or multimodal transport on a vessel in the port of destination.

«到指定目的港船上交貨價 (Delivered Ex Ship)» 意味著此賣主交付當此貨物被放置在由此買家處置於在此指名目的地港口船上不被清關待進口。此賣主必需負擔包含帶送此貨物到此指名目的地港口於卸放之前所有費用及風險。如果各方希望此賣主負擔此卸放此貨物費用及風險, 則此到指定目的港碼頭交貨價(DEQ)條件當被使用。

此條件僅能被使用當此貨物是被以海運或內陸水路或複式運送在目的地港口的船上被交付。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DES / DELIVERED EX SHIP (... named port of destination)到指定目的港船上交貨價 (... 指定目的港)

THE SELLER'S OBLIGATIONS

此賣主的義務

THE BUYER'S OBLIGATIONS

此買主的義務

A1 Provision of goods in conformity with the contract

A1依此合同供應貨物

The seller must provide the goods and the commercial invoice, or its equivalent electronic message, in conformity with the contract of sale and any other evidence of conformity which may be required by the contract.

此賣主必須提供此貨物和此商業發票, 或它的等效電子訊息, 與銷售合同一致及任何其它與合同要求一致的證明。

B1 Payment of the price

B1依此價付款

The buyer must pay the price as provided in the contract of sale.

此買家必須支付係如銷售合同預先約定價款。

A2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

A2執照、授權和管制程序

The seller must obtain at his own risk and expense any export licence or other official authorisation or other documents and carry out, where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), all customs formalities necessary for the export of the goods and for their transit through any country.

此賣主必須自負風險及費用取得及完成任何出口執照或其它官方授權或其它單據, 當可適用(參見14 段介紹。) ,為此貨物出口及為它們過境任何國家必要的所有海關管制程序。

B2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

B2執照、授權和管制程序

The buyer must obtain at his own risk and expense any import licence or other official authorisation and carry out, where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), all customs formalities necessary for the import of the goods.

此買家必須自負風險及費用取得及完成任何進口執照或其它官方授權, 當可適用(參見14 段介紹。) ,為此貨物進口必需的所有海關管制程序。

A3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

A3運送和保險合同

a)      Contract of carriage

a) 運送合同

The seller must contract at his own expense for the carriage of the goods to the named point, if any, at the named port of destination. If a point is not agreed or is not determined by practice, the seller may select the point at the named port of destination which best suits his purpose.

此賣主必須自費簽約為運送此貨物到此指名地點, 如有, 在此指名目的地港口。如果一處地點是不被同意或於實務上未被決定, 此賣主得挑選在此指名目的地港口其最合適他的目的特定地點。

b)      Contract of insurance

b) 保險合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10).

沒有義務(參考10段介紹)

B3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

B3運送和保險合同

a) Contract of carriage

a) 運送合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph

10)

沒有義務(參見10段介紹)

c)      Contract of insurance

b) 保險合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10).

沒有義務(參見10段介紹)

A4 Delivery

A4 交付

The seller must place the goods at the disposal of the buyer on board the vessel at the unloading point referred to in A3 a), in the named port of destination on the date or within the agreed period, in such a way as to enable them to be removed from the vessel by unloading equipment appropriate to the nature of the goods.

此賣主必須放置貨物依此買家處置在卸載地點船上參考A3 a), 在此指名目的地港口於此日期或於此同意的期間內, 以該種方式以便讓他們能自此船舶被搬移藉由適合此貨物本質卸載設施。

B4 Taking delivery

B4接受交付

The buyer must take delivery of the goods when they have been delivered in accordance with A4.

此買家必須接受此貨物的交付當他們已依據A4完成交付。

A5 Transfer of risks

A5 移動風險

The seller must, subject to the provisions of B5, bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods until such time as they have been delivered in accordance with A4.

此賣主必須, 依據此B5條款,負擔對此貨物的所有損失或損壞風險直到他們已依據A4完成交付時間為止。

B5 Transfer of risks

B5 移動風險

The buyer must bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods from the time they have been delivered in accordance with A4.

此買家必須負擔此貨物損失或損壞的所有風險自從他們已依據A4完成交付時間起

The buyer must, should he fail to give notice in accordance with B7, bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods from the agreed date or the expiry date of the agreed period for delivery provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods.

此買家必須, 當他未能依據B7給予通知, 自於此同意為交付期間此同意的日期或此有效日期起負擔此貨物所有損失或損壞風險假如, 無論如何, 此貨物已完整地合適於合同, 也就是說, 清楚地堆儲或以其它不同方式被確認係如合同貨物。

A6 Division of costs

A6 費用配分

The seller must, subject to the provisions of B6, pay

此賣主必須, 依據此B6條款, 支付

• in addition to costs resulting from A3 a), all costs relating to the goods until such time as they have been delivered in accordance with A4; and

費用的增加起因於A3 a), 相關此貨物的所有費用直到他們已依據A4完成交付時間為止; 並且

• where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), the costs of customs formalities necessary for export as well as all duties, taxes or other charges payable upon export of the goods and for their transit through any country prior to delivery in accordance with A4.

當可適用(參見14段介紹), 依據A4為此出口必需的海關管制程序費用及所有關稅, 稅費或於此貨物出口, 和為它們過境任何國家於交付之前其他應付費用。

B6 Division of costs

B6 費用配分

The buyer must pay

此買家必須支付

• all costs relating to the goods from the time they have been delivered in accordance with A4, including the expenses of discharge operations necessary to take delivery of the goods from the vessel; and

相關此貨物的所有費用自它們已依據A4已完成交付時間起包括自此船舶接受交付此貨物卸放作業必需的費用; 並且

• all additional costs incurred if he fails to take delivery of the goods when they have been placed at his disposal in accordance with A4, or to give notice in accordance with B7, provided, however, that the goods have been appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods.

所有增加的費用肇因如他未能接受此貨物交付當他們依據A4已依他的處置放置, 或依據B7給予通知, 假設, 無論如何, 此貨物已合適於此合同, 也就是說, 清楚地堆儲或以其它不同方式被確認係如合同貨物。

• where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), the costs of customs formalities as well as all duties, taxes and other charges payable upon import of the goods.

當可適用(參見14段介紹),此海關管制程序費用及所有關稅, 稅費或於進口此貨物其他應付費用。

A7 Notice to the buyer

A7 通知此買家

The seller must give the buyer sufficient notice of the estimated time of arrival of the nominated vessel in accordance with A4 as well as any other notice required in order to allow the buyer to take measures which are normally necessary to enable him to take delivery of the goods.

此賣主必須依據A4給此買家遞交此指定的船舶預計抵達時間充足通知及任何其它被要求通知為了允許此買家採行措施其通常地是必要地以能讓他接受此貨物。

B7 Notice to the seller

B7 通知此賣主

The buyer must, whenever he is entitled to determine the time within an agreed period and/or the point of taking delivery in the named port of destination, give the seller sufficient notice thereof.

此買家必須, 每當他有權決定此時間於一同意期間及/或在此指名目的地港口接受交付地點, 由此給此賣主充足的通知。

A8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

A8 交貨證明、運輸文件或等效電子消息

The seller must provide the buyer at the seller's expense with the delivery order and/or the usual transport document (for example a negotiable bill of lading, a non-negotiable sea waybill, an inland waterway document, or a multimodal transport document) to enable the buyer to claim the goods from the carrier at the port of destination.
賣主必須自費提供此買家此到貨單(小提單)/或此通用的運送單據 (例如一份可轉讓的提單, 一份不可轉讓的海運貨單、一份內陸水路單據, 或一份複式運送單據)能讓此買家自在此目的地港口運送人提領此貨物。

Where the seller and the buyer have agreed to communicate electronically, the document referred to in the preceding paragraph may be replaced by an equivalent electronic data interchange (EDI) message.

當此賣主和此買家已同意電子通信, 此在前段中被言及的單據得被由一份等效電子交換訊息(EDI)替換。

B8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

B8 交付證明、運送單據或等效電子訊息

The buyer must accept the delivery order or the transport document in accordance with A8.

依據A8此買家必須接受此到貨單(小提單)或此運送單據。

A9 Checking - packaging - marking

A9 檢查- 包裝- 標記

The seller must pay the costs of those checking operations (such as checking quality, measuring, weighing, counting) which are necessary for the purpose of delivering the goods in accordance with A4.

此賣主必須付費於這些檢查作業(譬如檢查品質, 丈量, 磅重, 計數) 其依據A4為此交付此貨物目的是所必需的。

The seller must provide at his own expense packaging (unless it is agreed or usual for the particular trade to deliver the goods of the contract description unpacked) which is required for the delivery of the goods at the frontier and for the subsequent transport to the extent that the circumstances (for example modalities, destination) are made known to the seller before the contract of sale is concluded. Packaging is to be marked appropriately.

此賣家必需自費提供包裝(除非它被同意或常態於特別貿易交付此合同品名貨物無包裝)其被要求為交付此貨物在此邊境及後續運送在此程度為此情況(例如形式, 目的地) 於此銷售合同被議決之前被為賣家週知。包裝將適當地被標記。

B9 Inspection of goods

B9 貨物檢查

The buyer must pay the costs of any pre-shipment inspection except when such inspection is mandated by the authorities of the country of export.

此買家必須支付任何裝船前檢查的費用, 除當該檢查是由出口國當局強制。

A10 Other obligations

A10 其它義務

The seller must render the buyer at the latter's request, risk and expense, every assistance in obtaining any documents or equivalent electronic messages (other than those mentioned in A8) issued or transmitted in the country of dispatch and/or of origin which the buyer may require for the import of the goods. The seller must provide the buyer, upon request, with the necessary information for procuring insurance.

此賣主必須通報此買家如後要求、風險和費用, 每一協助以取得任何單據或等效電子訊息(除這些在A8所提及外) 於遞交及/或原產國被簽發或被傳送其此買家得要求為此貨物進口。此賣主必須提供此買家, 根據要求, 以取得保險此必要的資訊。

B10 Other obligations

B10  其它義務

The buyer must pay all costs and charges incurred in obtaining the documents or equivalent electronic messages mentioned in A10 and reimburse those incurred by the seller in rendering his assistance in accordance therewith.

此買家必須支付所有費用和支出肇因於取得在A10中提及的單據或等效電子訊息和償還那些肇因於由此賣主依據隨後給與它的協助。

DEQ / DELIVERED EX QUAY (... named port of destination)

到指定目的港碼頭交貨價(... 指定目的港)

 

«Delivered Ex Quay» means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer not cleared for import on the quay (wharf) at the named port of destination. The seller has to bear costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to the named port of destination and discharging the goods on the quay (wharf).The DEQ term requires the buyer to clear the goods for import and to pay for all formalities, duties, taxes and other charges upon import.

«到指定目的港碼頭交貨價(Delivered Ex Quay)» 意味著此賣主交付當此貨物被放置在由此買家處置於此在指名目的地港口碼頭(港沪)上不被清關待進口。此賣主必需負擔包含帶送此貨物到此指名目的地港口及卸放此貨物於碼頭()上費用及風險。此到指定目的港碼頭交貨價(DEQ)條件要求此買主要清關此貨物待進口及支付所有於進口管制程序, 關稅, 稅費, 及其它支出。

 

THIS IS A REVERSAL FROM PREVIOUS INCOTERMS VERSIONS WHICH REQUIRED THE SELLER TO ARRANGE FOR IMPORT CLEARANCE.

這是一項轉變從以前國貿條規版本其要求此賣主安排進口清關。

 

If the parties wish to include in the seller's obligations all or part of the costs payable upon import of the goods, this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale (Refer to Introduction paragraph 11).
如果各方希望於此賣方義務中包括全部或部份當此貨物進口應付費用, 這當藉由增加明確字詞讓此事於此銷售合同中做的清楚(參見11段介紹)

 

This term can be used only when the goods are to be delivered by sea or inland waterway or multimodal transport on discharging from a vessel onto the quay (wharf) in the port of destination. However if the parties wish to include in the seller's obligations the risks and costs of the handling of the goods from the quay to another place (warehouse, terminal, transport station, etc.) in or outside the port, the DDU or DDP terms should be used.

此條件僅能被使用當此貨物是被以海運或內陸水路或複式運送自此在目的地港口中一艘船舶卸放到此碼頭(港沪)上。無論如何如果各方希望於此賣方的義務中包括自此碼頭到另一地方(倉庫, 貨櫃場, 運送站, 等等)在港口堜峊~的此經手貨物風險及費用, 此到指定目的地稅前交貨價(DDU) 或到指定目的地稅後交貨價(DDP) 條件當被使用。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DEQ / DELIVERED EX QUAY (... named port of destination)到指定目的港碼頭交貨價(... 指定目的港)

THE SELLER'S OBLIGATIONS

此賣主的義務

THE BUYER'S OBLIGATIONS

此買主的義務

A1 Provision of goods in conformity with the contract

A1依此合同供應貨物

The seller must provide the goods and the commercial invoice, or its equivalent electronic message, in conformity with the contract of sale and any other evidence of conformity which may be required by the contract.

此賣主必須提供此貨物和此商業發票, 或它的等效電子訊息, 與銷售合同一致及任合其它與合同要求一致的證明。

B1 Payment of the price

B1依此價付款

The buyer must pay the price as provided in the contract of sale.

此買家必須支付係如銷售合同預先約定價款。

A2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

A2執照、授權和管制程序

The seller must obtain at his own risk and expense any export licence or other official authorisation or other documents and carry out, where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), all customs formalities for the export of the goods, and for their transit through any country.

此賣主必須自負風險及費用取得及完成任何出口執照或其它官方授權或其它單據, 當可適用(參見14 段介紹。) ,為此貨物出口, 及為它們過境任何國家的所有海關管制程序。

B2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

B2執照、授權和管制程序

The buyer must obtain at his own risk and expense any import licence or official authorisation or other documents and carry out, where applicable(Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), all customs formalities necessary for the import of the goods.

此買家必須自負風險及費用取得及完成任何進口執照或官方授權或其它單據, 當可適用(參見14 段介紹。) ,為此貨物進口必需的所有海關管制程序。

A3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

A3運送和保險合同

a) Contract of carriage

a) 運送合同

The seller must contract at his own expense for the carriage of the goods to the named quay (wharf) at the named port of destination. If a specific quay (wharf) is not agreed or is not determined by practice, the seller may select the quay (wharf) at the named port of destination which best suits his purpose.

此賣主必須自費簽約為運送此貨物到此指名目的地港口的指名碼頭(港沪), 如有, 在此指名目的地港口。如果一處特定的碼頭(港沪)是不被同意或於實務上未被決定, 此賣主得挑選在此指名目的地港口其最合適他的目的碼頭(港沪)

b)      Contract of insurance

b) 保險合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10).

沒有義務(參考10段介紹)

B3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

B3運送和保險合同

a)      Contract of carriage

a) 運送合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10).

沒有義務(參見10段介紹)

b)      Contract of insurance

b) 保險合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10).

沒有義務(參見10段介紹)

A4 Delivery

A4 交付

The seller must place the goods at the disposal of the buyer on the quay (wharf) referred to in A3 a), on the date or within the agreed period.

此賣主必須放置此貨物在此買家處置碼頭(港沪)上參考在A3 a), 於此日期或於此同意的期間內。

B4 Taking delivery

B4接受交付

The buyer must take delivery of the goods when they have been delivered in accordance with A4.

此買家必須接受此貨物的交付當他們已依據A4完成交付。

A5 Transfer of risks

A5 移動風險

The seller must, subject to the provisions of B5, bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods until such time as they have been delivered in accordance with A4.

此賣主必須, 依據此B5條款, 負擔對此貨物的所有損失或損壞風險直到他們已依據A4完成交付時間止。

B5 Transfer of risks

B5 移動風險

The buyer must bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods from the time they have been delivered in accordance with A4.
此買家必須負擔此貨物損失或損壞的所有風險自從他們已依據A4完成交付時間起

The buyer must, should he fail to give notice in accordance with B7, bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods from the agreed date or the expiry date of the agreed period for delivery provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods.

此買家必須, 當他未能依據B7給予通知, 自於此同意為交付期間此同意的日期或此有效日期起負擔此貨物所有損失或損壞風險假如, 無論如何, 此貨物已完整地合適於合同, 也就是說, 清楚地堆儲或以其它不同方式被確認係如合同貨物。

A6 Division of costs

A6 費用配分

The seller must, subject to the provisions of B6, pay

此賣主必須, 依據此B6條款, 支付

• in addition to costs resulting from A3 a), all costs relating to the goods until such time as they are delivered on the quay (wharf) in accordance with A4; and

費用的增加起因於A3 a), 相關此貨物的所有費用直到他們已依據A4完成交付在碼頭(港沪)時間為止; 並且

• where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), the costs of customs formalities necessary for export as well as all duties, taxes and other charges payable upon export of the goods and for their transit through any country prior to delivery.

當可適用(參見14段介紹), 為此出口必需的海關管制程序費用及所有關稅, 稅費及於此貨物出口和為它們過境任何國家於交付之前其他應付費用。

B6 Division of costs

B6 費用配分

The buyer must pay

此買家必須支付

• all costs relating to the goods from the time they have been delivered in accordance with A4, including any costs of handling the goods in the port for subsequent transport or storage in warehouse or terminal; and

相關此貨物的所有費用自它們已依據A4已完成交付時間起包括為後續運送或儲存於倉庫或櫃場任何在此港口經手此貨物費用; 並且

•all additional costs incurred if he fails to take delivery of the goods when they have been placed at his disposal in accordance with A4, or to give notice in accordance with B7, provided, however, that the goods have been appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods; and

所有增加的費用肇因如他未能接受此貨物交付當他們依據A4已依他的處置放置, 或依據B7給予通知, 假設, 無論如何, 此貨物已合適於此合同, 也就是說, 清楚地堆儲或以其它不同方式被確認係如合同貨物; 並且

• where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), the cost of customs formalities as well as all duties, taxes and other charges payable upon import of the goods and for their subsequent transport.

當可適用(參見14段介紹),此海關管制程序費用及所有關稅, 稅費或於進口此貨物和為他們後續的運送其他應付費用。

A7 Notice to the buyer

A7 通知此買家

The seller must give the buyer sufficient notice of the estimated time of arrival of the nominated vessel in accordance with A4, as well as any other notice required in order to allow the buyer to take measures which are normally necessary to enable him to take delivery of the goods.

此賣主必須依據A4給此買家此指定船舶此預計抵達時間充足通知及任何其它被要求通知為了允許此買家採行措施其通常地是必要地以能讓他接受此貨物。

B7 Notice to the seller

B7 通知此賣主

The buyer must, whenever he is entitled to determine the time within an agreed period and/or the point of taking delivery in the named port of destination, give the seller sufficient notice thereof.

此買家必須, 每當他有權決定此時間於一同意期間及/或在此指名目的地港口接受交付地點, 由此給此賣主充足的通知。

A8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

A8 交貨證明、運輸文件或等效電子消息

The seller must provide the buyer at the seller's expense with the delivery order and/or the usual transport document (for example a negotiable bill of lading, a non-negotiable sea waybill, an inland waterway document or a multimodal transport document) to enable him to take the goods and remove them from the quay (wharf).
Where the seller and the buyer have agreed to communicate electronically, the document referred to in the preceding paragraph may be replaced by an equivalent electronic data interchange (EDI) message.

賣主必須自費提供此買家此到貨單(小提單)/或此通用的運送單據 (例如一份可轉讓的提單, 一份不可轉讓的海運貨單、一份內陸水路單據, 或一份複式運送單據)能讓他自此碼頭(港沪)提領此貨物及搬移它們。當此賣主和此買家已同意電子通信, 此在前段中被言及的單據得被由一份等效電子交換訊息(EDI)替換。

B8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

B8 交付證明、運送單據或等效電子訊息

The buyer must accept the delivery order or transport document in accordance with A8.

依據A8此買家必須接受此到貨單(小提單)或此運送單據。

A9 Checking - packaging - marking

A9 檢查- 包裝- 標記

The seller must pay the costs of those checking operations (such as checking quality, measuring, weighing, counting) which are necessary for the purpose of delivering the goods in accordance with A4.
賣主必須付費於這些檢查作業(譬如檢查品質, 丈量, 磅重, 計數) 其依據A4為此交付此貨物目的是所必需的。

The seller must provide at his own expense packaging (unless it is usual for the particular trade to deliver the goods of the contract description unpacked) which is required for the delivery of the goods. Packaging is to be marked appropriately.

此賣家必需自費提供包裝(除非它是常態於特別貿易交付此合同品名貨物無包裝)其被要求為此交付此貨。包裝將適當地被標記。

B9 Inspection of goods

B9 貨物檢查

The buyer must pay the costs of any pre-shipment inspection except when such inspection is mandated by the authorities of the country of export.

此買家必須支付任何裝船前檢查的費用, 除當該檢查是由出口國當局強制。

A10 Other obligations

A10 其它義務

The seller must render the buyer at the latter's request, risk and expense, every assistance in obtaining any documents or equivalent electronic messages (other than those mentioned in A8) issued or transmitted in the country of dispatch and/or origin which the buyer may require for the import of the goods. The seller must provide the buyer, upon request, with the necessary information for procuring insurance.

此賣主必須通報此買家如後要求、風險和費用, 每一協助以取得任何單據或等效電子訊息(除這些在A8所提及外) 於遞交及/或原產國被簽發或被傳送其此買家得要求為此貨物進口。此賣主必須提供此買家, 根據要求, 以取得保險此必要的資訊。

B10 Other obligations

B10  其它義務

The buyer must pay all costs and charges incurred in obtaining the documents or equivalent electronic messages mentioned in A10 and reimburse those incurred by the seller in rendering his assistance in accordance therewith.

此買家必須支付所有費用和支出肇因於取得在A10中提及的單據或等效電子訊息和償還那些肇因於由此賣主依據隨後給與它的協助。

 

 

 

 

 

 

DDU / DELIVERED DUTY UNPAID (... named place of destination)

到指定目的地稅前交貨價 (… 指定目的地)

 

« Delivered duty unpaid» means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer, not cleared for import, and not unloaded from any arriving means of transport at the named place of destination. The seller has to bear the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods thereto, other than, where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), any «duty» (which term includes the responsibility for and the risks of the carrying out of customs formalities, and the payment of formalities, customs duties, taxes and other charges) for import in the country of destination. Such «duty» has to be borne by the buyer as well as any costs and risks caused by his failure to clear the goods for import in time.

«到指定目的地稅前交貨價(Delivered duty unpaid)»意味著此賣主交付此貨物給此買家, 不被清關待運, 及不自此指名目的地地方任何抵達的運送工具被卸載。致此此賣主必須負擔此包括帶送此貨物的費用和風險, 除外, 當可適用(參見14段介紹), 任何«關稅(duty)» (其條件包括此責任為及此風險於此完成海關管制程序及此管制程序的支付款, 海關關稅, 稅費及其他支出)為在目的地的國家中進口。該類«關稅(duty)»必需被由此買主負擔及任何費用和風險導由於他未能即時清關此貨物待進口。


However, if the parties wish the seller to carry out customs formalities and bear the costs and risks resulting therefrom as well as some of the costs payable upon import of the goods, this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14).

無論如何, 如果各方希望此賣主完成海關管制程序及負擔此費用及風險它們自所導因及某些費用當進口此貨物需支付, 這當藉由增加明確字詞讓此事於此銷售合同中做的清楚(參見14段介紹)

This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport but when delivery is to take place in the port of destination on board the vessel or on the quay (wharf), the DES or DEQ terms should be used.

這條件得被使用不論此運送模式但當交付將發生在此目的地港口在此船舶上或在此碼頭(港沪),  此到指定目的港船上交貨價(DES)或到指定目的港碼頭交貨價(DEQ)條件當被使用。

DDU / DELIVERED DUTY UNPAID (... named place of destination)到指定目的地稅前交貨價 (…指定目的地)

THE SELLER'S OBLIGATIONS

此賣主的義務

THE BUYER'S OBLIGATIONS

此買主的義務

A1 Provision of goods in conformity with the contract

A1依此合同供應貨物

The seller must provide the goods and the commercial invoice, or its equivalent electronic message, in conformity with the contract of sale and any other evidence of conformity which may be required by the contract.

此賣主必須提供此貨物和此商業發票, 或它的等效電子訊息, 與銷售合同一致及任合其它與合同要求一致的證明。

B1 Payment of the price

B1依此價付款

The buyer must pay the price as provided in the contract of sale.

此買家必須支付係如銷售合同預先約定價款。

 

A2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

A2執照、授權和管制程序

The seller must obtain at his own risk and expense any export licence and other official authorisation or other documents and carry out, where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), all customs formalities necessary for the export of the goods and for their transit through any country.

此賣主必須自負風險及費用取得及完成任何出口執照或其它官方授權或其它單據, 當可適用(參見14 段介紹。) ,為此貨物出口及為它們過境任何國家必要的所有海關管制程序。

B2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

B2執照、授權和管制程序

The buyer must obtain at his own risk and expense any import licence or other official authorisation or other documents and carry out, where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), all customs formalities necessary for the import of the goods.

此買家必須自負風險及費用取得及完成任何進口執照或其它官方授權或其它單據, 當可適用(參見14 段介紹。) ,為此貨物進口必需的所有海關管制程序。

A3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

A3運送和保險合同

a) Contract of carriage

a) 運送合同

The seller must contract at his own expense for the carriage of the goods to the named place of destination. If a specific point is not agreed or is not determined by practice, the seller may select the point at the named place of destination which best suits his purpose.

此賣主必須自費簽約為運送此貨物到此指名目的地地方。如果一處特定的地點是不被同意或於實務上未被決定, 此賣主得挑選在此指名目的地地方其最合適他的目的地點

b) Contract of insurance

b) 保險合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14).

沒有義務(參考14段介紹)

B3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

B3運送和保險合同

a) Contract of carriage

a) 運送合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10).

沒有義務(參見10段介紹)

b) Contract of insurance

b) 保險合同

No obligation (Refer to Introduction paragraph 10).

沒有義務(參見10段介紹)

 

A4 Delivery

A4 交付

The seller must place the goods at the disposal of the buyer, or at that of another person named by the buyer, on any arriving means of transport not unloaded, at the named place of destination on the date or within the period agreed for delivery.

此賣主必須放置此貨物依此買家處置, 或依由此買家指名另一人(處置) , 在任何抵達的運送工具上不予卸載, 在此指名目的地於此日期或於此同意交付期間內。

B4 Taking delivery

B4接受交付

The buyer must take delivery of the goods when they have been delivered in accordance with A4.

此買家必須接受此貨物的交付當他們已依據A4完成交付。

A5 Transfer of risks

A5 移動風險

The seller must, subject to the provisions of B5, bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods until such time as they have been delivered in accordance with A4.

此賣主必須, 依據此B5條款, 負擔對此貨物的所有損失或損壞風險直到他們已依據A4完成交付時間止。

B5 Transfer of risks

B5 移動風險

The buyer must bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods from the time they have been delivered in accordance with A4.
此買家必須負擔此貨物損失或損壞的所有風險自從他們已依據A4完成交付時間起

The buyer must, should he fail to fulfil his obligations in accordance with B2, bear all additional risks of loss of or damage to the goods incurred thereby.
買家必須, 當他未能依據B2履行他的義務,  負擔由其肇因此貨物所有增加的損失或損壞風險

The buyer must, should he fail to give notice in accordance with B7, bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods from the agreed date or the expiry date of the agreed period for delivery provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods.

此買家必須, 當他未能依據B7給予通知, 自於此同意為交付期間此同意的日期或此有效日期起負擔此貨物所有損失或損壞風險假如, 無論如何, 此貨物已完整地合適於合同, 也就是說, 清楚地堆儲或以其它不同方式被確認係如合同貨物。

A6 Division of costs

A6 費用配分

The seller must, subject to the provisions of B6, pay

此賣主必須, 依據此B6條款, 支付

• in addition to costs resulting from A3 a), all costs relating to the goods until such time as they have been delivered in accordance with A4; and

費用的增加起因於A3 a), 相關此貨物的所有費用直到他們已依據A4完成交付時間為止; 並且

• where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), the costs of customs formalities necessary for export as well as all duties, taxes and other charges payable upon export and for their transit through any country prior to delivery in accordance with A4.

當可適用(參見14段介紹), 依據A4為此出口必需的海關管制程序費用及所有關稅, 稅費及於出口和為它們過境任何國家於交付之前其他應付費用。

B6 Division of costs

B6 費用配分

The buyer must pay

此買家必須支付

• all costs relating to the goods from the time they have been delivered in accordance with A4; and

相關此貨物的所有費用自它們已依據A4已完成交付時間起; 並且

• all additional costs incurred if he fails to fulfil his obligations in accordance with B2, or to give notice in accordance with B7, provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods; and

所有增加的費用肇因如他未能依據B2履行他的義務, 或依據B7給予通知, 假設, 無論如何, 此貨物已完整地合適於此合同, 也就是說, 清楚地堆儲或以其它不同方式被確認係如此合同貨物; 並且

• where applicable (Refer to Introduction paragraph 14), the costs of customs formalities as well as all duties, taxes and other charges payable upon import of the goods.

當可適用(參見14段介紹),此海關管制程序費用及所有關稅, 稅費或於進口此貨物和為他們後續的運送其他應付費用。

A7 Notice to the buyer

A7 通知此買家

The seller must give the buyer sufficient notice of the dispatch of the goods as well as any other notice required in order to allow the buyer to take measures which are normally necessary to enable him to take delivery of the goods.

此賣主必須給此買家此貨物遞交充足通知及任何其它被要求通知為使允許此買家採行措施其通常地是必要的以能讓他接受此貨物交付。 

B7 Notice to the seller

B7 通知此賣主

The buyer must, whenever he is entitled to determine the time within an agreed period and/or the point of taking delivery at the named place, give the seller sufficient notice thereof.

此買家必須, 每當他有權決定此時間於一同意期間及/或在此指名接受交付地方地點, 由此給此賣主充足的通知。

A8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

A8 交貨證明、運輸文件或等效電子消息

The seller must provide the buyer at the seller's expense the delivery order and/or the usual transport document (for example a negotiable bill of lading, a non-negotiable sea waybill, an inland waterway document, an air waybill, a railway consignment note, a road consignment note, or a multimodal transport document) which the buyer may require to take delivery of the goods in accordance with A4/B4. Where the seller and the buyer have agreed to communicate electronically, the document referred to in the preceding paragraph may be replaced by an equivalent electronic data interchange (EDI) message.

依據A4/B4此賣主必須自費提供此買家此到貨單(小提單)/或此通用的運送單據 (例如一份可轉讓的提單, 一份不可轉讓的海運貨單, 一份內陸水路單據, 一份空運貨單, 一份鐵路運送單, 一份公路運送單, 或一份複式運送單據)其此買家得要求為要接受交付此貨物。當此賣主和此買家已同意電子通信, 此在前段中被言及的單據得被由一份等效電子交換訊息(EDI)替換。

B8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

B8 交付證明、運送單據或等效電子訊息

The buyer must accept the appropriate delivery order or transport document in accordance with A8.

依據A8此買家必須接受此合適的到貨單(小提單)或運送單據。

A9 Checking - packaging - marking

A9 檢查- 包裝- 標記

The seller must pay the costs of those checking operations (such as checking quality, measuring, weighing, counting) which are necessary for the purpose of delivering the goods in accordance with A4.
此賣主必須付費於這些檢查作業(譬如檢查品質, 丈量, 磅重, 計數) 其依據A4為此交付此貨物目的是所必需的。

The seller must provide at his own expense packaging (unless it is usual for the particular trade to deliver the goods of the contract description unpacked) which is required for the delivery of the goods. Packaging is to be marked appropriately.

此賣家必需自費提供包裝(除非它是常態於特別貿易交付此合同品名貨物無包裝)其被要求為此交付此貨。包裝將適當地被標記。

B9 Inspection of goods

B9 貨物檢查

The buyer must pay the costs of any pre-shipment inspection except when such inspection is mandated by the authorities of the country of export.

此買家必須支付任何裝船前檢查的費用, 除當該檢查是由出口國當局強制。

A10 Other obligations

A10 其它義務

The seller must render the buyer at the latter's request, risk and expense, every assistance in obtaining any documents or equivalent electronic messages (other than those mentioned in A8) issued or transmitted in the country of dispatch and/or of origin which the buyer may require for the import of the goods.
The seller must provide the buyer, upon request, with the necessary information for procuring insurance.

此賣主必須通報此買家如後要求、風險和費用, 每一協助以取得任何單據或等效電子訊息(除這些在A8所提及外) 於遞交及/或原產國被簽發或被傳送其此買家得要求為此貨物進口。此賣主必須提供此買家, 根據要求, 以取得保險此必要的資訊。

B10 Other obligations

B10 其它義務

The buyer must pay all costs and charges incurred in obtaining the documents or equivalent electronic messages mentioned in A10 and reimburse those incurred by the seller in rendering his assistance in accordance therewith.

此買家必須支付所有費用和支出肇因於取得在A10中提及的此單據或等效電子訊息和償還那些肇因於由此賣主依據隨後給與它的協助。

 

 

 

DDP / DELIVERED DUTY PAID (... named place of destination)

到指定目的地稅後交貨價(… 指定目的地)</